Background: Behçet’s Disease (BD) is characterized by numerous systemic
manifestations and is known for its ability to affect both, arteries and the veins. However, the etiology
of BD is only partially understood, and previous studies have demonstrated a role for genetic
and epigenetic factors that contribute to disease pathophysiology. Several studies have implicated T
cells and monocytes in the pathogenesis of BD especially when these cells are stimulated by heat
shock proteins and streptococcal antigen. Furthermore, during disease exacerbations adenosine
deaminase has an important role in activating lymphocyte proliferation, maturation, and differentiation
in BD. This article presents a review of the published literature mainly from the last 20 years.
The topics of main concern were the role of genetic and epigenetic factors as contributing factors in
Result and Conclusion: The authors used MeSH terms “Behçet’s disease” with “pathophysiology,”
“pathogenesis,” “genetic” or “epigenetic” to search the PubMed database. All the relevant studies
identified were included and are described according to the aforementioned subheadings.