Background: First discovered in the early 1970s, Acanthamoeba keratitis has remained
a major eye infection and presents a significant threat to the public health, especially
in developing countries. The aim is to present a timely review of our current understanding of
the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner and includes novel concepts and
provides clear directions for immediate research priorities. Method: We undertook a search of
bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and also summarized our published
results in this field. Results: The present review focuses on novel diagnostic and therapeutic
strategies in details which can provide access to management and treatment of
Acanthamoeba keratitis. This coupled with the recently available genome sequence information
together with high throughput genomics technology and innovative approaches should
stimulate interest in the rational design of preventative and therapeutic measures. Current
treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis is problematic and often leads to infection recurrence.
Better understanding of diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapeutic regimens,
would lead to novel strategies in treatment and prophylaxis.
Keywords: Parasite, cornea, pathogenesis, nanotechnology, inflammation, blindness,
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