Background: First discovered in the early 1970s, Acanthamoeba keratitis has remained
a major eye infection and presents a significant threat to the public health, especially in developing
countries. The aim is to present a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made
in this field in a comprehensible manner and includes novel concepts and provides clear directions
for immediate research priorities.
Methods: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature
and also summarized our published results in this field.
Results: The present review focuses on novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in details which
can provide access to management and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This coupled with the
recently available genome sequence information together with high throughput genomics technology
and innovative approaches should stimulate interest in the rational design of preventative and
therapeutic measures. Current treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis is problematic and often leads
to infection recurrence. Better understanding of diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathophysiology and
therapeutic regimens, would lead to novel strategies in treatment and prophylaxis.