Brucellosis is a debilitating febrile illness caused by an intracellular Brucella. The
disease is distributed in humans and animals widely, especially in developing countries. Ten
species are included in the genus Brucella nowadays; four species of them are pathogenic to
humans, which make brucellosis a zoonosis with more than 500,000 new cases reported annually.
For human brucellosis, the most pathogenic species is B. melitensis followed by B. suis,
while B. abortus is the mildest type of brucellosis. The infection mechanism of Brucella is
complicated and mostly relies on its virulence factors. The therapy of the disease contains
vaccination and antibiotic. However, there are some defects in currently available vaccines
such as the lower protective level and safety. Thus, safe and efficient vaccines for brucellosis
are still awaited. The dual therapy of antibacterial is effective in the treatment of brucellosis if
a rapid and exact detection method is found.
Keywords: Brucella, brucellosis, pathogen, treatment, febrile illness, genus, zoonosis.
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