Neglected diseases comprise a number of infectious diseases historically endemic to low- and
middle-income countries, though recently they have spread to high-income countries due to human migrations.
In the past, pharmaceutical companies have shown hesitant to invest in these health conditions,
due to the limited return on investment. As a result, the role of the academic sector and not-for-profit
organizations in the discovery of new drugs for neglected diseases has been particularly relevant.
Here, we review recent applications of modern drug discovery technologies in the field of neglected diseases,
including high-throughput screening, in silico screening and computer-aided drug design. The
suitability and perspectives of each approach are discussed depending on the context, along with the
technology and translational gaps influencing them.
Keywords: Drug repurposing, Drug repositioning, In silico screening, Virtual screening, High-throughput screening, Computer-
aided drug discovery, Neglected diseases, Infectious diseases.
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