In Vitro Study on Protoscolicidal Effect of Methanolic Extract of Allium hirtifolium on Protoscoleces of Cystic Echinococcosis

Author(s): Z. Shahamir Tabatabaei, S. Dehshahri, M.M. Taghi, F. Esfandiari, F.S. Sadjjadi, M. Ebrahimipour, S.M. Sadjjadi*.

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders)

Volume 19 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Cystic echinococcosis/ hydatidosis is one of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide. Usually, surgery is used for the treatment of active cysts. Due to the risk of cyst rupture during surgery, a protoscolicidal agent is usually injected into the cyst before surgery to prevent secondary cyst formation in case of cyst rupture. Due to the side effects of chemical protoscolicidal agents attempts have been focused on herbal medicine. In this regard, Allium sativum has already been used; however, the protoscolicidal effect of Allium hirtifolium from Allium family has not been investigated, so far.

Objective: The present study was conducted in order to assess the protoscolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium hirtifolium in different concentrations, temperature and exposure times. Cetrimide as a positive control and DMSO as a negative control were also used in this study.

Methods: The viability of protoscoleces was determined by 0.1% eosin staining method.

Results: The protoscolicidal effect of Allium hirtifolium on protoscoleces was as follows: The mean percent and standard deviation (SD) of protoscolicidal activity of 50 mg/ml concentration of Allium hirtifolium extract in room temperature at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes of exposure was 5.88±2.39, 8.59±4.54, 11.82±5.81, 12.31±6.16and 16.96±8.42 respectively; while at 37°C it was 9.10±5.01, 11.52±7.36, 18.64±4.36, 27.07±6.57 and 38.15±12.80, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, although Allium hirtifolium from Allium family is similar to Allium sativum; the protoscolicidal effect of its methanolic extract is not similar and less than A. sativum extract.

Keywords: Hydatid cyst, protoscoleces, Allium hirtifolium, cystic echinococcosis, Allium sativum, methanolic extract.

[1]
Sadjjadi, S.M. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitol. Int., 2006, 55(Suppl.), S197-S202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2005.11.030] [PMID: 16337429]
[2]
Rokni, M.B. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Iran. Iran. J. Parasitol., 2009, 4, 1-16.
[3]
Sadjjadi, S.M.; Sedaghat, F.; Hosseini, S.V.; Sarkari, B. Serum antigen and antibody detection in echinococcosis: application in serodiagnosis of human hydatidosis. Korean J. Parasitol., 2009, 47(2), 153-157.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2009.47.2.153] [PMID: 19488422]
[4]
Agudelo Higuita, N.I.; Brunetti, E.; McCloskey, C. Cystic Echinococcosis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2016, 54(3), 518-523.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02420-15] [PMID: 26677245]
[5]
Neumayr, A.; Tamarozzi, F.; Goblirsch, S.; Blum, J.; Brunetti, E. Spinal cystic echinococcosis--a systematic analysis and review of the literature: part 1. Epidemiology and anatomy. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 7(9) 2013.
[6]
Brunetti, E.; Garcia, H.H.; Junghanss, T.; International, C.E. Cystic echinococcosis: chronic, complex, and still neglected. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2011, 5(7)e1146
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001146] [PMID: 21814584]
[7]
Yanagida, T.; Mohammadzadeh, T.; Kamhawi, S.; Nakao, M.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Hijjawi, N.; Abdel-Hafez, S.K.; Sako, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Ito, A. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in the Middle East. Parasitol. Int., 2012, 61(4), 599-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2012.05.014] [PMID: 22668837]
[8]
Sadjjadi, S.M.; Mikaeili, F.; Karamian, M.; Maraghi, S.; Sadjjadi, F.S.; Shariat-Torbaghan, S.; Kia, E.B. Evidence that the Echinococcus granulosus G6 genotype has an affinity for the brain in humans. Int. J. Parasitol., 2013, 43(11), 875-877.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.06.008] [PMID: 23891711]
[9]
Sadjjadi, S.M.; Ardehali, S.; Noman-Pour, B.; Kumar, V.; Izadpanah, A. Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis: ultrasound imaging or countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis? East. Mediterr. Health J., 2001, 7(6), 907-911.
[PMID: 15332731]
[10]
Khalilpour, A.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Moghadam, Z.K.; Yunus, M.H.; Zakaria, N.D.; Osman, S.; Noordin, R. Lateral flow test using Echinococcus granulosus native antigen B and comparison of IgG and IgG4 dipsticks for detection of human cystic echinococcosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2014, 91(5), 994-999.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170] [PMID: 25200268]
[11]
Brunetti, E.; Kern, P.; Vuitton, D.A. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Acta Trop., 2010, 114(1), 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.11.001] [PMID: 19931502]
[12]
Stojkovic, M.; Rosenberger, K.; Kauczor, H.U.; Junghanss, T.; Hosch, W. Diagnosing and staging of cystic echinococcosis: how do CT and MRI perform in comparison to ultrasound? PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 2012, 6(10)e1880
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001880] [PMID: 23145199]
[13]
Filippou, D. Advances in Hydatid Disease, Diagnosis and Treatment In; Broken Hill Publishers Ltd: Cyprus, 2013, p. 411.
[14]
Khuroo, M.S.; Wani, N.A.; Javid, G.; Khan, B.A.; Yattoo, G.N.; Shah, A.H.; Jeelani, S.G. Percutaneous drainage compared with surgery for hepatic hydatid cysts. N. Engl. J. Med., 1997, 337(13), 881-887.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199709253371303] [PMID: 9302302]
[15]
Caglar, R.; Yuzbasioglu, M.F.; Bulbuloglu, E.; Gul, M.; Ezberci, F.; Kale, I.T. In vitro effectiveness of different chemical agents on scolices of hydatid cyst. J. Invest. Surg., 2008, 21(2), 71-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941930701883640] [PMID: 18340623]
[16]
Hazrati Tappeh, K.; Mousavi, J.; Mahmoudlou, R.; Mohammadzadeh, H.; Hanifian, H.; Mostafanejad, N. In vitro effectiveness of 3% hydrogen peroxide, 0.5% silver nitrate and 20% hypertonic saline on protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. J. Pure Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 5(2), 633-636.
[17]
Kayaalp, C.; Balkan, M.; Aydin, C.; Ozgurtas, T.; Tanyuksel, M.; Kirimlioglu, V.; Akoglu, M.; Oner, K.; Pekcan, M. Hypertonic saline in hydatid disease. World J. Surg., 2001, 25(8), 975-979.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-001-0065-9] [PMID: 11571978]
[18]
Hosseini, S.V.; Ghanbarzadeh, K.; Barzin, J.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Tanideh, N.; Mehrabani, D. In vitro protoscolicidal effects of hypertonic glucose on protoscolices of hydatid cyst. Korean J. Parasitol., 2006, 44(3), 239-242.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2006.44.3.239] [PMID: 16969062]
[19]
Besim, H.; Karayalçin, K.; Hamamci, O.; Güngör, C.; Korkmaz, A. Scolicidal agents in hydatid cyst surgery. HPB Surg., 1998, 10(6), 347-351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/1998/78170] [PMID: 9515230]
[20]
Houry, S.; Languille, O.; Huguier, M.; Benhamou, J.P.; Belghiti, J.; Msika, S. Sclerosing cholangitis induced by formaldehyde solution injected into the biliary tree of rats. Arch. Surg., 1990, 125(8), 1059-1061.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1990.01410200123020] [PMID: 2378559]
[21]
Tsimoyiannis, E.C.; Grantzis, E.; Moutesidou, K.; Lekkas, E.T. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis: after injection of formaldehyde into hydatid cysts in the liver. Eur. J. Surg., 1995, 161(4), 299-300.
[PMID: 7612776]
[22]
Sadjjadi, S.M.; Zoharizadeh, M.R.; Panjeshahin, M.R. In vitro screening of different Allium sativum extracts on hydatid cysts protoscoleces. J. Invest. Surg., 2008, 21(6), 318-322.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941930802348261] [PMID: 19160141]
[23]
Mansourian, S.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Hosseini, S.V.; Barzin, Z.; Mehrabani, D.; Tanideh, N.; Rafati, A. Evaluation of different chemical agents on the germinative layer of sheep hydatid cyst after implantation to peritoneal cavity of BALB/c. J. Invest. Surg., 2009, 22(3), 183-187.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941930902866238] [PMID: 19466655]
[24]
Moazeni, M.; Nazer, A. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst. World J. Surg., 2010, 34(11), 2677-2681.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-010-0718-7] [PMID: 20625727]
[25]
Ebrahimi, R.; Zamani, Z.; Kashi, A. Genetic diversity evaluation of wild Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) using morphological and RAPD markers. Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam), 2009, 119(4), 345-351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2008.08.032]
[26]
Kazemi, S.; Asgary, S.; Moshtaghian, J.; Rafieian, M.; Adelnia, A.; Shamsi, F. Liver-protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of allium hirtifolium boiss. In rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ARYA Atheroscler., 2010, 6(1), 11-15.
[PMID: 22577407]
[27]
Azadi, H.G.; Riazi, G.H.; Ghaffari, S.M.; Ahmadian, S.; Khalife, T.J. Effects of Allium hirtifolium (Iranian shallot) and its allicin on microtubule and cancer cell lines. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2009, 8(19), 5030-5037.
[28]
Asgarpanah, J.; Ghanizadeh, B. Pharmacologic and medicinal properties of Allium hirtifolium Boiss. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2012, 6, 1809-1814.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJPP12.354]
[29]
Nimse, S.B.; Pal, D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC. Adv., 2015, 5(35), 27986-28006.
[30]
Mikaili, P.; Maadirad, S.; Moloudizargari, M.; Aghajanshakeri, S.; Sarahroodi, S. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci., 2013, 16(10), 1031-1048.
[PMID: 24379960]
[31]
Smyth, J.D.; Barrett, N.J. Procedures for testing the viability of human hydatid cysts following surgical removal, especially after chemotherapy. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1980, 74(5), 649-652.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(80)90157-1] [PMID: 6782718]
[32]
Yetim, I.; Erzurumlu, K.; Hokelek, M.; Baris, S.; Dervisoglu, A.; Polat, C.; Belet, U.; Buyukkarabacak, Y.; Guvenli, A. Results of alcohol and albendazole injections in hepatic hydatidosis: experimental study. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2005, 20(9), 1442-1447.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2005.03843.x] [PMID: 16105134]
[33]
Hosseini, S.V.; Mohebzadeh, J.; Kumar, P.V.; Mehrabani, D.; Bagheri, M.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Amini, M.; Amini, A. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract, and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits. Saudi Med. J., 2008, 29(8), 1095-1098.
[PMID: 18690298]
[34]
Guidelines for treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Bull. World Health Organ., 1996, 74(3), 231-242.
[PMID: 8789923]
[35]
Barzin, Z.; Sadjjadi, S.M.; Panjehshahin, M.R. Protoscolicidal effects of the garlic chloroformic extract on the protoscolices of hydatid cyst at a short exposure time, up to five minutes. Iran. J. Med. Sci., 2019, 44(1), 28-34.
[PMID: 30666073]
[36]
Al-Musawi, S.A. Effect of Zizphus plant extract on the viability of hydatid cysts protoscoleces in vitro. Kufa J. Nurs. Sci., 2014, 4, 1-9.
[37]
Gangwar, M.; Verma, V.C.; Singh, T.D.; Singh, S.K.; Goel, R.K.; Nath, G. In-vitro scolicidal activity of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell Arg. fruit glandular hair extract against hydatid cyst Echinococcus granulosus. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med, 2013, 6(8), 595-601.
[38]
Rostami, A.; Taheri, M.; Gholizadeh, M.; Seyyedtabaei, S.J.; Raeghi, S.; Fallahi, S. Scolicidal effect of some herbs on Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces: A systematic literature review. Herbal. Med. J., 2016, 1, 53-59.
[39]
Al-Barwary, L.T. The anthelmintic effect of Urtica dioica and Tanacetum vulgare L. on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus. Int. J. Sci: Basic. Applied. Res, (IJSBAR). IJSBAR, 2013, 11, 84-89.
[40]
Rouhani, S.; Salehi, N.; Kamalinejad, M.; Zayeri, F. Efficacy of Berberis vulgaris aqueous extract on viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. J. Invest. Surg., 2013, 26(6), 347-351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2013.818746] [PMID: 23978263]
[41]
Soffar, S.A.; Mokhtar, G.M. Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 1991, 21(2), 497-502.
[PMID: 1875077]
[42]
Behnia, M.; Haghighi, A.; Komeilizadeh, H.; Seyyed Tabaei, S.J.; Abadi, A. In vitro antiamoebic activity of Iranian Allium sativum in comparison with Metronidazole against Entamoeba histolytica. Iran. J. Parasitol., 2008, 3(4), 32-38.
[43]
Fateh, R.; Nasiri Kashani, M.J.; Motevallian, M.; Falahati, M.; Yazdanparast, A. In vitro antifungal activity of Allium hirtifolium in comparison with miconazole. Med. J. Islam. Repub. Iran, 2010, 24, 17-22.
[44]
Amanzadeh, Y.; Izaddoost, M.; Soltanpoor, A.; Mahami, M.; Taheri, M.; Khalifeh Gholi Kalani, M.; Kalantari, N.; Taran, M.; Sadat Ebrahimi, SE. Inhibit effect of Allium hirtifolium boiss (persian shallot) hydroalcoholic extract on the growth of leishmania infantum in vitro. J. Med. Plants, , 48-52+7. 2006
[45]
Taran, M.; Rezaeian, M.; Izaddoost, M. In vitro antitrichomonas activity of Allium hirtifolium (Persian shallot) in comparison with metronidazole. Iran. J. Public Health, 2006, 35(1), 92-94.
[46]
Amin, M.; Pipelzadeh, M.H.; Mehdinejad, M.; Rashidi, I. An in vivo toxicological study upon shallomin, the active antimicrobial constitute of persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium, boiss) extract. Jundishapur J. Nat. Pharm. Prod., 2012, 7(1), 17-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/jjnpp-3566] [PMID: 24624146]
[47]
Mehdi, M.; Javad, H.; Seyed-Mostafa, H.Z.; Mohammadreza, M.; Ebrahim, M. The effect of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) extract on blood sugar and serum levels of some hormones in diabetic rats. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2013, 26(2), 397-402.
[PMID: 23455213]
[48]
Ismail, S.; Jalilian, F.A.; Talebpour, A.H.; Zargar, M.; Shameli, K.; Sekawi, Z.; Jahanshiri, F. Chemical composition and antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Allium hirtifolium boiss. Bio. Med. Res. Int. 2013, 2013.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Page: [264 - 268]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1871526518666180509130838
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 34