Novel Anthraquinone Derivatives as Dual Inhibitors of Topoisomerase 2 and Casein Kinase 2: In Silico Studies, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation on Leukemic Cell Lines

Author(s): Abbas Kabir , Kalpana Tilekar , Neha Upadhyay , C.S. Ramaa* .

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 11 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Cancer being a complex disease, single targeting agents remain unsuccessful. This calls for “multiple targeting”, wherein a single drug is so designed that it will modulate the activity of multiple protein targets. Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) helps in removing DNA tangles and super-coiling during cellular replication, Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in the phosphorylation of a multitude of protein targets. Thus, in the present work, we have tried to develop dual inhibitors of Top2 and CK2.

Objective: With this view, in the present work, 2 human proteins, Top2 and CK2 have been targeted to achieve the anti-proliferative effects.

Methods: Novel 1-acetylamidoanthraquinone (3a-3y) derivatives were designed, synthesized and their structures were elucidated by analytical and spectral characterization techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass Spectroscopy). The synthesized compounds were then subjected to evaluation of cytotoxic potential by the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) protein assay, using HL60 and K562 cell lines. Ten compounds were analyzed for Top2, CK2 enzyme inhibitory potential. Further, top three compounds were subjected to cell cycle analysis.

Results: The compounds 3a to 3c, 3e, 3f, 3i to 3p, 3t and 3x showed excellent cytotoxic activity to HL-60 cell line indicating their high anti-proliferative potential in AML. The compounds 3a to 3c, 3e, 3f, 3i to 3p and 3y have shown good to moderate activity on K-562 cell line. Compounds 3e, 3f, 3i, 3x and 3y were found more cytotoxic than standard doxorubicin. In cell cycle analysis, the cells (79-85%) were found to arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

Conclusion: We have successfully designed, synthesized, purified and structurally characterized 1- acetylamidoanthraquinone derivatives. Even though our compounds need design optimization to further increase enzyme inhibition, their overall anti-proliferative effects were found to be encouraging.

Keywords: Dual targeting, topoisomerase 2, casein kinase 2, anthraquinone, anti-cancer, leukemic cell line.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 11
Year: 2018
Page: [1551 - 1562]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1871520618666180423111309
Price: $58

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