Introduction: Gauzoma is an iatrogenic complication which occurs rarely due to surgical
team negligence. Depending on the sterility of the retained tissue, it can lead to life threatening
surgical complications or may remain asymptomatic for many years and be detected incidentally in
imaging studies. It may be mistaken as tumors or aneurysms. Thus, high clinical suspicion is
needed to diagnose them in patients with past history of operation.
Reporting Case: A 35 years old woman, a known case of scleroderma underwent open-heart surgery
20 years before being diagnosed as scleroderma, presented by dyspnea especially on activity.
The High Resolution CT (HRCT) for evaluating the interestial lung disease was done which detected
a 7 cm (in greatest diameter) inflammatory mass in posterior aspect of left hemi thorax with
a radiopaque thread in its center. True cut biopsy was done and sent for pathology, which revealed
fragments of foreign body materials probably gauze pad fibers with cell debris and blood.
Conclusion: Here, we highlighted the details in clinical history, CT findings, and pathology report
of gauzoma in thorax of a scleroderma patient following previous open-heart surgery. It can be
guidance for clinician to consider this diagnosis in patients with past history of operation.