Background: New sources of stem cells in adult organisms are constantly emerging. Postnatal
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), are the most promising support to perform an effective regenerative
medicine: such cells have the ability to differentiate into several lineages, such as osteoblasts
and chondroblasts, providing novel strategies to improve different complex treatments, during bone
regeneration. 3D-printed biomaterials can be designed with geometry aimed to induce stem cells to
differentiate towards specific lineage.
Objective: The interaction between stem cells easy to isolate and engineered 3D-printed scaffolds can
translate the tissue bio-engineering into bone regenerative surgery. For those reasons, to better identify
the complexity represented by the activities and responses of MSCs requires the advance of new target
therapies which are not current in endocrine, metabolic and immune disorders and yet to be developed.
Method: This topical review briefly focuses on the new approaches of translational medicine with the
use of MSCs and scaffolds engineered with the aid of 3D-printing technology, highlights the osteogenic
functions and addresses their applications across the breadth of regenerative medicine.
Results: The application of bone constructs consisting of the engineered scaffold and MSCs as well as
the aspects related to the optimal scaffold geometry that favours the best MSCs differentiation and the
improvement of concepts as “sensing surface” were also discussed.
Conclusion: Regenerative surgery is largely growing in the field of translational medicine. The use of
new sources of MSCs and the improvement of new concepts of bio-engineered scaffolds will certainly
be the next step of customized medicine.