Background: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and
morbidity worldwide. Four out of five CVD deaths are due to myocardial infarction or stroke.
Despite many initiatives that have been established for CVD prevention and risk management, and
new therapies to treat existing CVD, patients continue to die from cardiac events. Clearly, we need
to identify new therapeutic targets and strategies. Metabolomics offers a novel solution to this
problem, as metabolomics-based biomarkers do not only indicate the presence or absence of a
disease, but are also capable of assessing risks of developing the disease and detecting the disease
prior to the appearance of overt clinical symptoms.
Method: In this review, we describe the analytical techniques and workflow used in untargeted
metabolomics. We also identify several case studies that highlight the use of untargeted
metabolomics in cardiovascular research.
Results: Five case studies that employ untargeted metabolomics approaches to identify biomarkers
for cardiovascular risk, myocardial ischemia, transient ischemic attack, incident coronary heart
disease, and myocardial infarction risk prediction are described. The use of the untargeted
metabolomics is still relatively new in cardiovascular research. As such, there remains a need for
future advancement in metabolomic technologies.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis of CVDs and identification of patients at high risk of developing
adverse events would allow for timely intervention that prevents serious consequences or death.
There is a need to establish sensitive and non-invasive CV biomarkers, and novel therapeutic targets
for the prevention and treatment of CVDs.