Background: Chikungunya infections are a major concern because of their persistent
recurrence in the last few decades. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito borne alpha virus that
causes an acute febrile illness accompanied by body rashes, myalgia and polyarthralgia; which may
persists for years. Chikungunya fever, affect millions of people in Africa, Asia, including the Indian
subcontinent and lately in several regions of the Americas. No specific antivirals and vaccines are
currently available to treat or prevent the disease.
Methods: Understanding the mechanisms of host immune responses to CHIKV and the
immunopathology of the disease is essential for the development of vaccines and diagnostics. Many
studies have demonstrated the role of the immune response in the immunopathology of the disease
and in the host’s incapability to clear the virus efficiently. In this review the excellence of the
referenced papers were evaluated using standard tools.
Results: Total seventy-four papers were included in the review. Majority of them were highlighted
the importance of understanding the immunopathology of virus, contributing factor and control
measures of the epidemics. Nineteen papers were provided the current occurrence and re-emergence
of the disease. The diagnostic importance (sensitivity and specificity) of developed diagnostics for the
early detection were also provided in eight papers.
Conclusion: In the current review we highlighted the importance of conceptual mechanism of the
host immune responses to CHIKV and the immunopathology of this alpha virus. The presented
review provides an update on the infection, its vector, and the disease transmission, research
development, and administration for avoidance of Chikungunya disease.