Background: The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is primarily located within S1
of the renal proximal tubule being responsible for approximately 90% of glucose re-uptake in the kidney.
Inhibition of SGLT2 is an exciting new pharmacological approach for the reduction of blood glucose
in type 2 diabetic patients via inhibition of tubular glucose reabsorption. In addition to lowering
glucose, this group of drugs has shown significant cardiovascular and renal protective effects.
Conclusion: This review aims to outline the current state of preclinical research and clinical trials for
different SGLT2 inhibitors and outline some of the proposed mechanisms of action, including possible
effects on sympathetic nerve activity, which may contribute to the unexpected beneficial cardiovascular
and reno-protective effects of this class of compounds.
Keywords: SGLT-2, diabetic micro-and macrovascular complications, cardiovascular and renoprotection, reactive oxygen species, sympathetic nerves
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