Melatonin and Oxidative Stress in the Diabetic State: Clinical Implications and Potential Therapeutic Applications

Author(s): Javier Espino , Ana B. Rodríguez , José A. Pariente* .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 22 , 2019

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Abstract:

All living organisms exhibit circadian rhythms, which govern the majority of biological functions, including metabolic processes. Misalignment of these circadian rhythms increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. Thus, disruption of the circadian system has been proven to affect the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this context, the pineal indoleamine melatonin is a signaling molecule able to entrain circadian rhythms. There is mounting evidence that suggests a link between disturbances in melatonin production and impaired insulin, glucose, lipid metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. Besides, several genetic association studies have causally associated various single nucleotide polymorphysms (SNPs) of the human MT2 receptor with increased risk of developing T2DM. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenous as well as exogenous melatonin may influence diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances not only by regulating insulin secretion but also by providing protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) since pancreatic β-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress due to their low antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Melatonin, melatonin receptor, circadian rhythm, oxidative stress, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, insulin, β- cell.

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