Mucositis is a side effect associated with the use of chemotherapy, and has a significant impact on the
quality of life. Mucositis, by definition, refers to the inflammation of the mucosa and occurs throughout the alimentary
tract from the mouth to anus. Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) encompasses a family of transcription factors,
which upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. These are recognized as key targets in developing therapeutic interventions
for chemotherapy-induced mucositis, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition may also be beneficial in
reducing the severity and duration. This review focuses on the pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced oral and gastrointestinal
mucositis and recent research examining the role of agents with anti-inflammatory activity in treatment
and prevention of the condition. We consider agents in clinical use as well as some others under current investigation
including plant-derived and other natural medicines.
Keywords: Mucositis, chemotherapy, gastrointestinal, inflammation, anti-inflammatory, natural agents.
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