Targeting AMPK in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications: Energy Homeostasis, Autophagy and Mitochondrial Health

Author(s): Y.V. Madhavi, Nikhil Gaikwad, Veera Ganesh Yerra, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Srinivas Nanduri, Ashutosh Kumar*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 27 , 2019

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Abstract:

Adenosine 5′-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzymatic protein involved in linking the energy sensing to the metabolic manipulation. It is a serine/threonine kinase activated by several upstream kinases. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP allosterically. AMPK is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of the living system such as heart, kidney, liver, brain and skeletal muscles. Thus malfunctioning of AMPK is expected to harbor several human pathologies especially diseases associated with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction. AMPK activators including synthetic derivatives and several natural products that have been found to show therapeutic relief in several animal models of disease. AMP, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICA riboside) and A769662 are important activators of AMPK which have potential therapeutic importance in diabetes and diabetic complications. AMPK modulation has shown beneficial effects against diabetes, cardiovascular complications and diabetic neuropathy. The major impact of AMPK modulation ensures healthy functioning of mitochondria and energy homeostasis in addition to maintaining a strict check on inflammatory processes, autophagy and apoptosis. Structural studies on AMP and AICAR suggest that the free amino group is imperative for AMPK stimulation. A769662, a non-nucleoside thienopyridone compound which resulted from the lead optimization studies on A-592107 and several other related compound is reported to exhibit a promising effect on diabetes and its complications through activation of AMPK. Subsequent to the discovery of A769662, several thienopyridones, hydroxybiphenyls pyrrolopyridones have been reported as AMPK modulators. The review will explore the structure-function relationships of these analogues and the prospect of targeting AMPK in diabetes and diabetic complications.

Keywords: Diabetes, diabetic complications, AMPK, autophagy, mitochondria, (AICA riboside), A769662.

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