Background: The increased use of herbal remedies particularly in patients with kidney diseases indicated
the importance of studies, which focused on nephrotoxic plants.
Objective: The present study aimed to review and assess the kidney-damaging herbs mentioned in the Persian medicine
Method: The main PM books were searched for nephrotoxic herbs and their relevant reformers traditionally proposed
for preventing renal damage. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were investigated for evaluation of the
scientific evidence relating to the nephrotoxicity of herbs.
Results: A total of 64 plants with kidney damage potential and their reformer medicaments were recorded in 7
sources included in this review. Allium schoenoprasum and Marrubium vulgare were the most repeated and emphasized
nephrotoxic plants in PM books, but there was no relevant scientific evidence. Despite the lack of clinical studies,
some evidence was found for 38% of plants that were related to renal damage. The most repeated reformers for
reducing the renal side effects mainly consisted of gum tragacanth, gum Arabic, mastic gum, anise, jujube and honey
and some evidence was found for their nephroprotective activities.
Conclusion: The present study reviewed and assessed the herbs with adverse renal effects in the main PM books.
Some evidence was in line with the potential nephrotoxicity of plants and their reformers. Despite the lack of clinical
research for evaluation of their renal damage, the herbs may be focused in term of their nephrotoxicity; and there is a
need for further studies on the scientific basis of their nephrotoxicity.