Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) are produced by a variety of human immune and non immune cells in
health and disease. In virtue of their antimicrobial activity, AMPs have been exploited in human disease and here
this aspect will extensively be described. AMPs in comparison to antibiotics possess a larger spectrum of antimicrobial
activity without inducing microbial resistance. Therefore, their use in the course of antibiotic-resistant
infections is justified. AMP activity in early life, in the airways, in the oral and gastro-enteric system, in the skin
and in the female reproductive tract, respectively, will be elucidated. In addition, the use of AMPs in sepsis will
be discussed due to the frequency of this pathological condition characterized by multiple organ dysfunctions.
Finally, the evidence that AMPs represent valid substitutes of antibiotics will be provided and a series of novel
substances able to reinforce the innate immune response in different clinical settings will be discussed.
Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides, clinical trials, innate immune response, microbial resistance, sepsis, antibiotic-resistant infections.
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