Synthetic methods for the poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymers (P3HT) preparation were reviewed.
Different protocols were reported such as electropolymerization, oxidative method (mainly by
FeCl3), Ni-catalyzed methods (McCullough, Rieke, GRIM), Pd- catalyzed methods such as Suzuki and
Stille coupling and, the more recent, Direct Arylation Polymerization (DArP). The present review focuses
on the synthetic protocols and their relationship to the final key-structural polymer characteristics
like regioregularity and molecular weight control which are of importance in the final properties and
application of P3HT. An extended literature review was performed covering also very recent advancements.
The use of NHC palladium or nickel catalysts, disclosed the door to the preparation of “quasi”
living polymers for most of the Ni and Pd catalyzed reactions, enabling a fine tuning of both regioregularity
and molecular weight.
Keywords: P3HT, conductive polymers, organic synthesis, organic materials, nickel catalyzed reactions, palladium catalyzed
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