On-chip Mixing, Pumping and Concentrating Effects by Using AC Electrothermal Flow

Author(s): Reza H. Vafaie*.

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Volume 9 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Microfluidic manipulation (including: pumping, mixing and concentrating effects) is highly challengeable for bioengineering and on-chip analysis applications such as point-of-care immune-detection systems. In this research we propose a configurable electrode structure to form various manipulation effects including pumping, mixing and concentrating processes by applying an Alternate Current (AC) electrokinetically-driven flow.

Methods: By applying an inhomogeneous electric field causes temperature rise accompanied by temperature gradients generation inside the microchannel. As a result, an AC electrothermal flow generates inside the channel, which is efficient to generate mixing, pumping and concentrating effects.

Results: The proposed system is studied numerically by Finite-Element-Method, Based on the results, a) bulk fluid velocity of 100 µm/s is achieved by exciting the electrodes in pumping mode, b) complete mixing efficiency is observed in mixing mode, c) for antibody-antigen binding process (concentrating mode), the surface reaction increases by the factor of 9 after 5 seconds of sample loading. Results reveal that the system is highly efficient for bio-fluid mediums.

Conclusion: AC electrothermal fluid manipulation process was investigated numerically inside a microchannel for biological buffers. Back and forth fluid motions, clockwise/counter-clockwise rotational vortexes and also antibody-antigen linking enhancement were achieved by engineering the specific electrode patterns. The manipulation efficiency improves by increasing both the amplitude of electric potential and the ionic strength of biofluid. As a result, our proposed configurable device is of interest for onchip immunoassays and point-of-care devices.

Keywords: Concentration, mixing, pumping, ac electrothermal, microchannel, microfluidic, Lab-on-a-chip.

[1]
Lin, H.C. Poly-Si nanowire device technology. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Asia, 2011, 1(2), 109-122.
[2]
Vafaie, R.H.; Ghavifekr, H.B.; Lintel, H.; Brugger, J.; Renaud, P. Bi‐directional AC electrothermal micropump for on chip biological applications. Electrophoresis, 2016, 719-726.
[3]
Chen, X.; Zhang, L.; Cai, H.; Li, H.; Sun, J.; Cui, D. Electrokinetic microchip-based sample loading for surface plasmon resonance detection. Micro Nano Lett., 2013, 8(1), 47-51.
[4]
Reddy, A.D.; Sekhar, Y.; Sharma, K.V. Improvement in material properties of thermal energy storage medium with nanostructured materials. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Asia, 2017, 7(2), 125-138.
[5]
Lei, K.F. Electrical detection of sandwich immunoassay on indium tin oxide interdigitated electrodes. Micro Nano Lett., 2011, 6(3), 157-160.
[6]
Zeng, Q.; Guo, F.; Yao, L.; Zhu, H.W.; Zheng, L.; Guo, Z.X.; Liu, W.; Chen, Y.; Guo, S.S.; Zhao, X.Z. Milliseconds mixing in microfluidic channel using focused surface acoustic wave. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2011, 160(1), 1552-1556.
[7]
Wu, J. Interactions of electrical fields with fluids: Laboratory-on-a-chip applications. IET Nanobiotechnol., 2008, 2(1), 14-27.
[8]
Stubbe, M.; Gyurova, A.; Gimsa, J. Experimental verification of an equivalent circuit for the characterization of electrothermal micropumps: High pumping velocities induced by the external inductance at driving voltages below 5 V. Electrophoresis, 2013, 34(4), 562-574.
[9]
Huang, K.R.; Chang, J.S. Three dimensional simulation on binding efficiency of immunoassay for a biosensor with applying electrothermal effect. Heat Mass Transf., 2013, 49(11), 1647-1658.
[10]
Chang, L.; Gallego-Perez, D.; Zhao, X.; Bertani, P.; Yang, Z.; Chiang, C.L.; Malkoc, V.; Shi, J.; Sen, C.K.; Odonnell, L.; Yu, J. Dielectrophoresis-assisted 3D nanoelectroporation for non-viral cell transfection in adoptive immunotherapy. Lab Chip, 2015, 15(15), 3147-3153.
[11]
Khashei, H.; Latifi, H.; Seresht, M.J.; Ghasemi, A.H. Microparticles manipulation and enhancement of their separation in pinched flow fractionation by insulator based dielectrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 2016, 37(5-6), 775-785.
[12]
Yang, C.K.; Chang, J.S.; Chao, S.D.; Wu, K.C. Two dimensional simulation on immunoassay for a biosensor with applying electrothermal effect. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2007, 91(11)113904
[13]
Lu, Y.; Ren, Q.; Liu, T.; Leung, S.L.; Gau, V.; Liao, J.C.; Chan, C.L.; Wong, P.K. Long-range electrothermal fluid motion in microfluidic systems. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 2016, 98, 341-349.
[14]
Sigurdson, M.; Wang, D.; Meinhart, C.D. Electrothermal stirring for heterogeneous immunoassays. Lab Chip, 2005, 5(12), 1366-1373.
[15]
Salari, A.; Thompson, M. Recent advances in AC electrokinetic sample enrichment techniques for biosensor development. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2018, 255(3), 3601-3615.
[16]
Selmi, M.; Khemiri, R.; Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H. Electrothermal effect on the immunoassay in a microchannel of a biosensor with asymmetrical interdigitated electrodes. Appl. Therm. Eng., 2016, 105, 77-84.
[17]
Selmi, M.; Gazzah, M.H.; Belmabrouk, H. Numerical study of the electrothermal effect on the kinetic reaction of immunoassays for a microfluidic biosensor. Langmuir, 2016, 32(50), 13305-13312.
[18]
Selmi, M.; Khemiri, R.; Echouchene, F.; Belmabrouk, H. Enhancement of the analyte mass transport in a microfluidic biosensor by deformation of fluid flow and electrothermal force. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 2016, 138(8)081011
[19]
Yuan, Q.; Yang, K.; Wu, J. Optimization of planar interdigitated microelectrode array for biofluid transport by AC electrothermal effect. Microfluid. Nanofluidics, 2014, 16(1-2), 167-178.
[20]
Huang, K.R.; Chang, J.S.; Chao, S.D.; Wu, K.C.; Yang, C.K.; Lai, C.Y.; Chen, S.H. Simulation on binding efficiency of immunoassay for a biosensor with applying electrothermal effect. J. Appl. Phys., 2008, 104(6)064702
[21]
Wu, J.; Lian, M.; Yang, K. Micropumping of biofluids by alternating current electrothermal effects. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2007, 90(23)234103
[22]
Feldman, H.C.; Sigurdson, M.; Meinhart, C.D. AC electrothermal enhancement of heterogeneous assays in microfluidics. Lab Chip, 2007, 7(11), 1553-1559.
[23]
Hibbert, D.B.; Gooding, J.J.; Erokhin, P. Kinetics of irreversible adsorption with diffusion: Application to biomolecule immobilization. Langmuir, 2002, 18(5), 1770-1776.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 9
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2019
Page: [252 - 258]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2210681208666180321142455
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 20
HTML: 2