Background: The new progress in electronic devices has provided a great opportunity for
advancing electrochemical instruments by which we can more easily solve many problems of interest
for trace analysis of compounds, with a high degree of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and selectivity.
On the other hand, in recent years, there is a significant growth in the application of nanomaterials for
the construction of nanosensors due to enhanced chemical and physical properties arising from discrete
modified nanomaterial-based electrodes or microelectrodes.
Objective: Combination of the advanced electrochemical system and nanosensors make these devices
very suitable for the high-speed analysis, as motioning and portable devices. This review will discuss
the recent developments and achievements that have been reported for trace measurement of drugs and
toxic compounds for environment, food and health application.