Homocysteine and Hyperhomocysteinaemia

Author(s): Bozidarka L. Zaric* , Milan Obradovic , Vladan Bajic , Mohamed A. Haidara , Milos Jovanovic , Esma R. Isenovic* .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 16 , 2019

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Abstract:

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a thiol group containing the amino acid, which naturally occurs in all humans. Hcy is degraded in the body through two metabolic pathways, while a minor part is excreted through kidneys. The chemical reactions that are necessary for degradation of Hcy require the presence of folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Consequently, the level of the total Hcy in the serum is influenced by the presence or absence of these vitamins. An elevated level of the Hcy, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and homocystinuria is connected with occlusive artery disease, especially in the brain, the heart, and the kidney, in addition to venous thrombosis, chronic renal failure, megaloblastic anemia, osteoporosis, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, pregnancy problems, and others. Elevated Hcy levels are connected with various pathologies both in adult and child population. Causes of HHcy include genetic mutations and enzyme deficiencies in 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) methionine synthase (MS), and cystathionine β-synthase (CβS). HHcy can be caused by deficiencies in the folate, vitamin B12 and to a lesser extent, deficiency in B6 vitamin what influences methionine metabolism. Additionally, HHcy can be caused by the rich diet and renal impairment. This review presents literature data from recent research related to Hcy metabolism and the etiology of the Hcy blood level disorder. In addition, we also described various pathological mechanisms induced by hereditary disturbances or nutritional influences and their association with HHcy induced pathology in adults and children and treatment of these metabolic disorders.

Keywords: Homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia, homocysteine metabolism, disturbance of homocysteine metabolism, nutritional deficiencies, cardiovascular diseases.

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VOLUME: 26
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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180313105949
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