Aviation and the Environment
Pp. 1-39 (39)
Bento S. de Mattos
The present chapter contains information about the impact of aviation on
global warming and describes the industry commitments to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. This chapter also analyses ICAO’s efforts in establishing goals and
timeframe - carbon neutral by 2020 and 50% reduction on 2005 baseline - to states and
industry to reduce aviation pollution. A solid “Four Pillar” initiative was set by the
industry with the objective to address such a target, considering investments in
operational procedures, infrastructure, technology and market-based measures.
According to the recent studies, operational procedures and improvements in
infrastructure may not be sufficient to accomplish the ICAO goals with current
technological state of art. Innovative technological developments, mainly related to
new airframe and engine designs and concepts are indeed considered the most effective
and promising measures with potential to lead to fuel efficiency improvements up to
25% when compared with 2005 levels. With this perspective, fuel efficiency is
becoming more and more relevant in aircraft design techniques. Electrical vehicles may
be a considerably, if not entirely, a part of the ground transportation fleet in coming
decades. A study was undertaken in the present work to estimate the percentage of
aviation in CO2 emissions and noise levels considering a steadily increasing fleet of
electrical vehicles over time. The evident conclusion is that even when introducing
biofuels in aviation operations, their share in pollution compared to present levels will
still steadily increase and take up a huge percentage of all transportation pollution. This
will be an ongoing process up to the year 2050 despite the overall emission reductions.
In other words, there is considerable evidence that aviation will be more and more in
focus (and social-political pressure) throughout the years regarding the GHG
emissions. This fact obviously reinforces the necessity for improvements in
aircraft/engine designs, alternative motorization, and other sources of energy to
empower aircraft systems and improve operational efficiencies.
Aviation, Aircraft design, Aircraft emissions, Electric car,
Environment, Fuel efficiency, Global warming.
Aircraft Design Department Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA) Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo Brazil.