Natural Product Derived Drugs for Immunological and Inflammatory Diseases
Pp. 31-78 (48)
Narayana Subbiah Hari Narayana Moorthy, Vijayakumari Pratheepa and Elangovan Manivannan
Natural products derived drugs are usually associated with secondary
metabolites, produced by different natural sources including plants, microorganisms,
insects, animals, marine sources, etc, which can be used as a drug for the treatment of
various diseases including, cancer, infectious disease, cardiovascular diseases,
carbohydrate and cholesterol mediated diseases, inflammatory, neurological and
immunological diseases. In this chapter, we describe the natural products derived drugs
that are under clinical trials (Phase studies) for the treatment of inflammatory and
immunological diseases. These diseases are named as immune-mediated inflammatory
disorders (autoimmune disorders), which are associated with many other disorders.
Voclosporin is under Phase IIb trials for the prevention and treatment of kidney graft
rejection. KRP-203 is a fingolimod analogue undergoing Phase study for
transplantation, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. PG490-88
(14-succinyl triptolide sodium salt) is a semisynthetic analogue of triptolide, isolated
from Tripterygium wilfordii, which exhibits anti-autoimmune and anti-inflammatory
properties. Didemnin B (first compound obtained from the sea that directly entered into
human clinical trials against cancer) feasibly modulates the activity of FK-506 binding
proteins as part of its immunomodulatory process and thus leads to cell death via
apoptosis. Didemnin B has been withdrawn subsequently due to its toxic and
immunosuppressive effects. Some natural compounds such as manoalide and
luffariellolide (with anti-inflammatory effects) are in clinical studies. Inflazyme
Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Canada and Avantis Pharma Inc, Germany has reported some
derivatives of the IPL576 series for asthma and other diseases. The derivative (IPL550,260) possessed anti-inflammatory activity and is currently in clinical studies.
This chapter provides knowledge to the readers on the recent development on the
clinical trials drugs derived from natural products for these diseases.
Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Clinical trials, Cyclosporine,
Flavonoids, Immunomodulators, Immunosuppresants, Multiple sclerosis, Natural
products, Phase studies, Psoriasis.
Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, s/n, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.