Insight Into the Emerging Role of Striatal Neurotransmitters in the Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease and Huntington’s Disease: A Review

Author(s): Sumit Jamwal, Puneet Kumar*.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 17 , Issue 2 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Alteration in neurotransmitters signaling in basal ganglia has been consistently shown to significantly contribute to the pathophysiological basis of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter which plays a critical role in coordinated body movements. Alteration in the level of brain dopamine and receptor radically contributes to irregular movements, glutamate mediated excitotoxic neuronal death and further leads to imbalance in the levels of other neurotransmitters viz. GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine and endocannabinoids. This review is based upon the data from clinical and preclinical studies to characterize the role of various striatal neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Further, we have collected data of altered level of various neurotransmitters and their metabolites and receptor density in basal ganglia region. Although the exact mechanisms underlying neuropathology of movement disorders are not fully understood, but several mechanisms related to neurotransmitters alteration, excitotoxic neuronal death, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation are being put forward. Restoring neurotransmitters level and downstream signaling has been considered to be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify more specific drugs and drug targets that can restore the altered neurotransmitters level in brain and prevent/delay neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Movement disorders, neurotransmitters, striatum, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, adenosine, acetylcholine.

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VOLUME: 17
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Year: 2019
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