Nutritional, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Value Added Muffins

Author(s): Shyamala B. Nagarajaiah*, Manasa G. Ramakrishna, Jamuna Prakash.

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 15 , Issue 5 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Consumption of unhealthy processed foods viz., refined wheat flour based bakery products such as biscuits, muffins, etc. is a key causative factor underlying nutrition transition giving rise to overweight and obesity. The underutilized coarse grain, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) can find potential application in bakery products.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to prepare healthy muffins by partial replacement of refined flour with Proso Millet Flour (PMF), Carrot Preserve (CP) and Beetroot Preserve (BP).

Methods: Standardized methods were used to analyze the products for nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and sensory properties.

Results: Results showed that the protein and dietary fiber contents of products ranged from 5.49- 5.95g and 3.60-4.15g/100g respectively. Total phenolic content was high in aqueous extract of muffin with PMF+BP i.e. 125±1.41mg tannic acid equivalent/100g. β-carotene content was high in muffin with PMF+CP (155±3.5µg/100g). Antioxidant activity determined by four methods showed that products with PMF+CP and PMF+BP had higher activity compared to control samples. The sensory quality of muffin was unaffected by the incorporation PMF, having scores equal to control muffins.

Conclusion: To conclude PMF, CP and BP can be used as functional food ingredients in bakery products to improve the nutritional quality without affecting sensorial palatability.

Keywords: Carotenoids, microbial analysis, moisture sorption, proso millet, storage studies, vegetable preserve.

APEDA (Agricultural and Processed food products Export Development Authority) Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Govt. of India. New Delhi. [downloaded, Jan. 2015].
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). X5434E/ x5434e07.htm
Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62(1): 129-34.
Tudorica CM, Kuri V, Brennan CS. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of dietary fiber enriched pasta. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(2): 347-56.
Kaack KV, Pedersen L. Application of by-products from industrial processing of potato flour and yellow peas as ingredients in low-fat high-fibre sausages. Eur Food Res Technol 2005; 221(3-4): 313-9.
Sudha ML, Baskaran V, Leelavathi K. Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food Chem 2007; 104: 686-92.
Rupasinghe HPV, Wang L, Huber GM, Pittis NL. Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder. Food Chem 2008; 107: 1217-24.
Borneo R, Aguirre A. Chemical composition, cooking quality, and consumer acceptance of pasta made with dried amaranth leaves flour. Lebensm Wiss Technol 2008; 41: 1748-51.
Peressinin D, Sensidoni A. Effect of soluble dietary fibre addition on rheological and bread making properties of wheat doughs. J Cereal Sci 2009; 49(2): 190-201.
Almeida EL, Marangoni AL, Steel CJ. Starches from non - conventional sources to improve the technological characteristics of pound cake. Cienc Rural 2013; 43(11): 2101-8.
Romjaun ZZ, Prakash J. Development and assessment of fibre-enriched muffins. Adv Food Sci 2013; 35(4): 159-65.
AOAC Determination of moisture, ash, protein and fat Official Methods of Analysis 18th ed. AOAC International. 2005.
Asp NG, Johansson CG, Hallmer H, Siljeström M. Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. J Agric Food Chem 1983; 31(3): 476-82.
Taussky HH, Shorr E. A microcolorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorus. J Biol Chem 1953; 202(2): 675-85.
Raghuramulu N, Nair MK, Kalyansundaram S. Manual of Laboratory Techniques. National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Jamai- Osmania, Hyderabad, India . 2003.
Oser BL. Hawks Physiological Chemistry 14th ed. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.: New Delhi, India . 1965.
Baker CJL. The determination of oxalates in fresh plant material. Analyst (Lond) 1952; 77: 340-4.
Thompson DB, Erdman JW Jr. Phytic acid determination in soybeans. J Food Sci 1982; 47: 513-7.
Matthäus B. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(12): 3444-52.
Jia Z, Tang M, Wu J. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999; 64: 555-9.
Price ML, Scoyoc SV, Butler LG. Critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum-grain. J Agric Food Chem 1978; 26: 1214-8.
Ranganna S. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. 2nd ed. Tata McGraw-Hill: New Delhi, India . 1986.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1995; 28: 25-30.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239(1): 70-6.
Dinis TCP, Maderia VM, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994; 315(1): 161-9.
Oyaizu M. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Japanese J Nutr 1986; 44: 307-15.
Labuza TP, Acolt K, Tatini SR, Lee RY, Flink JM. Water activity determination- A collaborative study of different methods. J Food Sci 1976; 41: 911-5.
AOCS. American Oil Chemists Society. Free fatty acids and peroxide value. In: Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 10th ed. Vol. 2. Chamgaign, IL,. 2010.
Cruickshank R, Duguid JP, Swain RHA. Medical Microbiology. 12th ed. The English Language Book Society, Churchill, Livingstone: Edinburgh, UK . 1975.
Cadello AV. Perception of food quality. In: Food storage stability. Taub IA, Singh RP, Eds. CRC press: Boca Raton, FL. 1998; pp. 1-38.
Jyothi Lakshmi A, Gupta S, Prakash J. Comparative analysis of influence of promoters and inhibitors on in vitro available iron using two methods. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2006; 57(7-8): 559-69.
Suma RC, Sheetal G, Jyothi LA, Prakash J. Influence of phytin phosphorous and dietary fibre on in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability from rice flakes. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2007; 58(8): 637-43.
Shyamala BN Jr, Jamuna P. Nutritional content and antioxidant properties of pulp waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris. Malays J Nutr 2010; 16(3): 397-408.
Gelina P, McKinnon CM. Effect of wheat variety, farming site, and bread-baking on total phenolics. Int J Food Sci Technol 2006; 41: 329-32.
Abdel-Aal E-SM, Rabalski I. Effect of baking on free and bound phenolic acids in wholegrain bakery products. J Cereal Sci 2013; 57: 312-8.
Soong YY, Tan SP, Leong LP, Henry JK. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour. Food Chem 2014; 164: 462-9.
Shyamala BN, Prakash J. Nutritional composition, acceptability, and shelf stability of carrot pomace-incorporated cookies with special reference to total and β-carotene retention. Cogent Food Agric 2015; 13: 1-10.
Rupasinghe HPV, Wang L, Pittis NL, Astatkie L. Baking and sensory characteristics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder. J Food Qual 2009; 32: 685-94.
Rosales-Soto MU, Powers JR, Alldredge JR. Effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during processing of muffins. J Sci Food Agric 2012; 92(7): 1511-8.
Rosales-Soto MU, Brown K, Ross CR. Antioxidant activity and consumer acceptance of grape seed flour-containing food products. Int J Food Sci Technol 2012; 47: 592-602.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [454 - 466]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1874609811666180223155034
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 33
PRC: 1