Genome editing mediated by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats
(CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) has recently been considered to be used as efficient, rapid
and site-specific tool in the modification of endogenous genes in biomedically important cell types
and whole organisms. It has become a predictable and precise method of choice for genome engineering
by specifying a 20-nt targeting sequence within its guide RNA. Firstly, this review aims to describe
the biology of CRISPR system. Next, the applications of CRISPR–Cas9 in various ways, such
as efficient generation of a wide variety of biomedically important cellular models as well as those of
animals, modifying epigenomes, conducting genome-wide screens, gene therapy, labelling specific
genomic loci in living cells, metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria and endogenous gene expression
regulation by an altered version of this system were reviewed.
Keywords: CRISPR, Genome engineering, Biology, Applications, Cas9, Biomedicine, Biotechnology.
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