Background: One of the most important causes of death in the modern lifestyle is acute ischemic
stroke, which is related to thrombosis in the blood vessels. Staphylokinase (SAK), a fibrinolytic
agent, which is produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus, is an indirect activator of plasminogen
and belongs to the third generation of fibrinolytic enzymes.
Methods: Considering the very low level of production and immunogenicity concerns of natural SAK
produced by Staphylococcus aureus, attempts have been made to produce recombinant SAKs with
high production levels, more fibrinolytic activities and low immunogenicity.
Results and Conclusion: In this review, we summarized a number of expression systems based on recombinant
DNA technology and protein-engineering approaches, which have been developed for the
production of engineered recombinant SAK molecules with higher fibrinolytic activities and lower antigenicity.