Evans CJ, Fowkes FGR, Ruckley CV, et al. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh vein study. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999; 53: 149-53.
Fowkes FGR, Evans CJ, Lee AJ. Prevalence and risk factors of chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 2001; 52: 5-15.
Lee AJ, Evans CJ, Allan PL, et al. Lifestyle factors and the risk of varicose veins: Edinburgh vein study. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56: 171-9.
Vlajinac HD, Radak DJ, Marinkovic JM, Maksimovic MZ. Risk factors for chronic venous disease. Phlebology 2012; 27: 416-22.
Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schonbein GW, Smith PD, et al. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 488-98.
Porter JM, Moneta GL. Reporting standards in venous disease: an update. J Vasc Surg 1995; 21: 635-45.
Eklof B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, et al. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 2004; 40: 1248-52.
Radak DJ, Tanaskovic SZ, Vlajinac HD, et al. Relationship between pain and CEAP C categories of chronic venous disease. Angiology 2016; 67: 670-5.
Andreozzi GM, Cordova RM, Scomparin A, et al. Quality of life in chronic venous insufficiency. An Italian pilot study of the triveneto region. Int Angiol 2005; 24: 272-7.
Radak DJ, Vlajinac HD, Marinković JM, et al. Quality of life in chronic venous disease patients measured by short chronic venous disease quality of life questionnaire (CIVIQ-14) in Serbia. J Vasc Surg 2013; 58: 1006-13.
Ortega-Santana F, Liminana JM, Ruano F, et al. The influence of the CIVIQ dimensions on quality of life of patients with primary superficial venous incompetence. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014; 28: 425-8.
Danziger N. Pain in chronic venous disease: perspectives for research. Medicographia 2011; 33: 325-31.
Vital A, Carles D, Conde Da Silva Fraga E, et al. Unmyelinated C fibers and inflammatory cells are present in the wall of human varicose veins. A clinico-pathological study. Phlebolymphology 2010; 17: 27.
Arndt JO, Klement W. Pain evoked by polymodal stimulation of hand veins in humans. J Physiol 1991; 440: 467.
Klement W, Arndt JO. Adenosine does not evoke pain from venous and paravascular nociceptors in the human. Cardiovasc Res 1992; 26: 186-9.
Tisato V, Zamboni P, Menegatti E. Endothelial PDGF-BB produced ex vivo correlates with relevant hemodynamic parameters in patients affected by chronic venous disease. Cytokine 2013; 63: 92-6.
Michiels C, Arnould T, Knott I, et al. Stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis by human endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: 866-74.
Michiels C, Renard P, Bouaziz N, et al. Identification of the phospholipase A(2) isoforms that contribute to arachidonic acid release in hypoxic endothelial cells: limits of phospholipase A(2) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63: 321-32.
Saharay M, Shields DA, Porter JB, et al. Leukocyte activity in the microcirculation of the leg in patients with chronic venous disease. J Vasc Surg 1997; 26: 265-73.
Tisato V, Zauli G, Gianesini S, et al. Modulation of circulating cytokine-chemokine profile in patients affected by chronic venous insufficiency undergoing surgical hemodynamic correction. J Immunol Res 2014; 2014: 473765.
Eklof B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, et al. American venous forum international Ad Hoc committee for revision of the CEAP classification. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 2004; 40: 1248-52.
Rabe E, Pannier F. Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits. Phlobology 2012; 27: 114-8.
Radak DJ, Tanaskovic SZ, Vlajinac HD, et al. Relationship between pain and CEAP C categories of relationship between pain and CEAP C categories of chronic venous disease. Angiology 2016; 67: 670-5.
Amsler F, Blättler W. Compression therapy for occupational leg symptoms and chronic venous disorders–a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008; 35: 366-72.
Blättler W, Thomae H-J, Amsler F. Venous leg symptoms in healthy subjects assessed during prolonged standing. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2016; 4: 455-62.
Van der Velden S, Shadid N, Nelemans P, Sommer A. How specific are venous symptoms for diagnosis of chronic venous disease? Phlebology 2014; 29: 580-6.
Virgini-Magalhaes CE, Porto CL, Fernandes FF, Dorigo DM, Bottino DA, Bouskela E. Use of microcirculatory parameters to evaluate chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg 2006; 43: 1037-44.
Jünger M, Steins A, Hahn M, Häfner H. Microcirculatory dysfunction in chronic venous insufficiency. Microcirculation 2000; 7(1): 3-12.
Radak DJ, Sotirovic VA. Risk factors for symptomatic chronic venous disorders: results from the international vein consult program. Medicographia 2015; 35(3): 85-91.
Gschwandtner ME, Ehringer H. Microcirculation in chronic venous insufficiency. Vasc Med 2001; 6(3): 169-79.
Bradbury A, Evans C, Allan P, Lee A, Ruckley CV, Fowkes FG. What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross sectional population survey. BMJ 1999; 318: 353-6.
Kahn SR, M’lan CE, Lamping DL, et al. Relationship between clinical classification of chronic venous disease and patient-reported quality of life: results from an international cohort study. J Vasc Surg 2004; 39: 823-8.
Chiesa R, Marone EM, Limoni C, et al. Chronic venous disorders: correlation between visible signs, symptoms, and presence of functional disease. J Vasc Surg 2007; 46: 322-30.
Langer RD, Ho E, Denenberg JO, et al. Relationships between symptoms and venous disease. The San Diego population study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 1420-4.
Conway AM, Nordon IM, Hinchliffe RJ, et al. Patient-reported symptoms are independent of disease severity in patients with primary varicose veins. Vascular 2011; 19: 262-8.
Duque MI, Yosipovitch G, Chan YH, et al. Itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms in mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with an impact on quality of life. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53: 504-8.
Ziegler S. Chronic venous disease is highly prevalent in hospital employees. Phlebolymphology 2006; 13: 150.
Howlader MH, Smith PG. Symptoms of chronic venous disease and association with systemic inflammatory markers. J Vasc Surg 2003; 38: 950-4.
Reinhardt F, Wetzel T, Vetten S, et al. Peripheral neuropathy in chronic venous insufficiency. Muscle Nerve 2000; 23: 883-7.
Yim E, Vivas A, Maderal A, et al. Neuropathy and ankle mobility abnormalities in patients with chronic venous disease. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150: 385-9.
Padberg FT, Maniker AH, Carmel G, et al. Sensory impairment: a feature of chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg 1999; 30: 836-42.
Michiels C, Bouaziz N, Remacle J. Role of the endothelium and blood stasis in the development of varicose veins. Int Angiol 2002; 21: 18-25.
Vlajinac HD, Marinkovic JM, Maksimovic MZ, et al. Body mass index and primary chronic venous disease-a cross-sectional study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2013; 45: 293-8.
Robertson LA, Evans CJ, Lee AJ, et al. Incidence and risk factors for venous reflux in the general population: Edinburgh vein study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014; 48: 208-14.
Göstl K, Obermayer A, Hirschl M. Pathogenesis of chronic venous insufficiency by obesity. Phlebologie 2009; 38: 108-13.
van Rij AM, De Alwis CS, Jiang P, et al. Obesity and impaired venous function. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008; 35: 739-44.
Maurins U, Hoffman BH, Losch C, et al. Distribution and prevalence of reflux in the superficial and deep venous system in the general population - results from the Bonn vein study, Germany. J Vasc Surg 2008; 48: 680-7.
Davies HO, Popplewell M, Singhai R, et al. Obesity and lower limb venous disease - The epidemic of phlebesity. Phlebology 2017; 32: 227-33.
Matic P, Jolic S, Tanaskovic S, et al. Chronic venous disease and comorbidities. Angiology 2015; 66: 539-44.
Vlajinac H, Marinkovic J, Maksimovic M. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study. Angiology 2014; 65: 824-30.
Rabe E, Pannier F, Ko A, et al. Incidence of varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency, and progression of the disease in the Bonn vein study II. J Vasc Surg 2010; 51: 791.
Onida S, Davies AH, Franklin I. Varicose veins who should be referred? Phlebology 2015; 30: 4-8.
Venous Forum of the Royal Society of Medicine, et al. Recommendations for the referral and treatment of patients with lower limb chronic venous insufficiency (including varicose veins). Phlebology 2011; 26: 91-3.
Gloviczki P, Comerota AJ, Dalsing MC, et al. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the society for vascular surgery and the American venous forum. J Vasc Surg 2011; 53: 2-48.
Marston WA. PPG, APG, duplex: which noninvasive tests are most appropriate for the management of patients with chronic venous insufficiency? Semin Vasc Surg 2002; 15: 13-20.
Christopoulos D, Nicolaides AN, Szendro G. Venous reflux: quantification and correlation with the clinical severity of chronic venous disease. Br J Surg 1988; 75: 352-6.
Criado E, Farber MA, Marston WA, et al. The role of air plethysmography in the diagnosis of chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg 1998; 27: 660-70.
Adams EF. Hippocrates. The genuine works of Hippocrates. In: Adams EF, Ed. Wm Wood & Co. New York 1886; Vol. 2.
Anning ST. Historical aspects. In: Dodd H, Cockett FB, Eds. The pathology and surgery of veins of the lower limb. Edinburgh: Livingstone 1956; pp. 6-28.
Gjores JE, Thulesius O. Compression treatment in venous insufficiency evaluated with foot volumetry. Vasa 1977; 6: 364-8.
Partsch H. Improvement of venous pumping function in chronic venous insufficiency by compression depending on pressure and material. Vasa 1984; 13: 58.
Anderson JH, Geraghty JG, Wilson YT, et al. Paroven and graduated compression hosiery for superficial venous insufficiency. Phlebology 1990; 5: 271-6.
Jungbeck C, Thulin I, Darenheim C, et al. Graduated compression treatment in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: A study comparing low and medium grade compression stockings. Phlebology 1997; 12: 142-5.
Motykie GD, Carpini JA, Arcelus JI, et al. Evaluation of therapeutic compression stockings in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Dermatol Surg 1999; 25: 116-20.
Lim CS, Davies AH. Graduated compression stockings. CMAJ 2014; 186: 391-8.
Shingler S, Robertson L, Boghossian S, et al. Compression stockings for the initial treatment of varicose veins in patients without venous ulceration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 12: CD008819.
Callum MF, Ruckley CV, Dale JJ, et al. Hazards of compression treatment of the leg: an estimate from Scottish surgeons. BMJ 1987; 295: 1352.
Raju S, Hollis K, Neglen P. Use of compression stockings in chronic venous disease. Ann Vasc Surg 2007; 21: 790-5.
Jull AB, Mitchell N, Arroll J, et al. Factors influencing concordance with compression stockings after venous leg ulcer healing. J Wound Care 2004; 13: 90-2.
Blattler W, Zimmet SE. Compression therapy in venous disease. Phlebology 2008; 23: 203-5.
Perrin M, Ramelet AA. Pharmacological treatment of primary chronic venous disease: rationale, results and unanswered questions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2011; 41: 117-25.
Casley-Smith JR, Morgan RG, Piller NB. Treatment of lymphedema of the arms and legs with 5,6-benzo-alpha-pyrone. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1158-63.
Nicolaides AN1, Allegra C, Bergan J, et al. Management of chronic venous disorders of the lower limbs - guidelines according to scientific evidence. Int Angiol 2014; 33: 87-208.
Guyatt G, Gutterman D, Baumann MH, et al. Grading strength of recommendations and quality of evidence in clinical guidelines: report from an American college of chest physicians task force. Chest 2006; 129: 174-81.
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336: 924-6.
Korthuis R, Gutte DC. Post-ischemic leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions and microvascular barrier dysfunction in skeletal muscle: Cellular mechanisms and effect of Daflon 500 mg. Int J Microcirc 1997; 17: 11-7.
Jantet G. Chronic venous insufficiency: worldwide results of the RELIEF study. Reflux assessment and quality of life improvement with micronized flavonoids. Angiology 2002; 53: 245-56.
Danielsson G, Jungbeck C, Peterson K, et al. A randomised controlled trial of micronised purified flavonoid fraction vs placebo in patients with chronic venous disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2002; 23: 73-6.
Martinez-Zapata MJ, Vernooij RW, Uriona Tuma SM, et al. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 4: CD003229.
Bush R, Comerota A. Meissner et al. Recommendations for the medical management of chronic venous disease: The role of micronized purified flavanoid fraction (MPFF). Phlebology 2017; 32: 3-19.
Pokrovsky AV, Saveljev VS, Kirienko AI, et al. Surgical correction of varicose vein disease under micronized diosmin protection (results of the Russian multicenter controlled trial DEFANS). Angiol Sosud Khir 2007; 13: 47-55.
Gohel MS, Davies AH. Pharmacological agents in the treatment of venous disease: an update of the available evidence. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009; 7: 303-8.
Petruzzellis V, Troccoli T, Candiani C, et al. Oxerutins (Venoruton): efficacy in chronic venous insufficiency--a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Angiology 2002; 53: 257-63.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Pellegrini L, et al. Venoruton®vs. Daflon®: evaluation of effects on quality of life in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology 2006; 57: 131-8.
Aziz Z, Tang WL, Chong NG, et al. A systematic review of the efficacy and tolerability of hydroxyethylrutosides for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. J Clin Pharm Ther 2015; 40: 177-85.
Yildiz CE, Conkbayir C, Huseynov E, et al. The efficiency of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in reducing the incidence of superficial venous insufficiency in patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction. Phlebology 2017; 32: 179-84.
Guillaume M, Padioleau F. Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, antiinflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract. Arzneimittelforschung 1994; 44: 25-35.
Dudek-Makuch M, Studzińska-Sroka E. Horse chestnut–efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2015; 25: 533-41.
Tejerina T, Ruiz E. Calcium dobesilate: pharmacology and future approaches. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 31: 357-60.
Rabe E, Jaeger KA, Bulitta M, Pannier F. Calcium dobesilate in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phlebology 2011; 26: 162-8.
Eberhardt RT, Raffetto JD. Chronic venous insufficieny. Circulation 2014; 130: 333-46.
Christenson JT, Gueddi S, Gemayel G, et al. Prospective randomized trial comparing endovenous laser ablation and surgery for treatment of primary great saphenous varicose veins with a 2-year follow-up. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52: 1234-41.
Lurie F, Creton D, Eklof B, et al. Prospective randomised study of endovenous radiofrequency obliteration (closure) versus ligation and vein stipping (EVOLVeS): two-year follow up. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005; 29: 67-73.
Helmy ElKaffas K, ElKashef O, ElBaz W. Great saphenous vein radiofrequency ablation versus standard stipping in the management of primary varicose veins-a randomized clinical trial. Angiology 2011; 62: 49-54.