Polymeric nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems due to their physicochemical properties,
which may be explored to improve the treatment and prevention of several diseases, including oral conditions.
Moreover, the pharmacological effects of polymers may be improved by nanostructuration. Therefore, this article
provides a detailed review of the studies published between 2010 and 2017 covering the use of polymeric
nanoparticles in the treatment and/or prevention of oral diseases. A brief description about the dental biofilm and
oral diseases is presented in first part of the article. The following section includes an important discussion about
the strategies studied to improve the treatment and prevention of these diseases using polymeric nanoparticles: (i)
a better drug antibacterial effect, (ii) the release of the drug in a time-controlled way, (iii) the increase of drug
uptake by cells, (iv) the cytotoxicity in tumor cells and solubility in water, and (v) mucoadhesive drug delivery
systems. Furthermore, the composition and size of the polymeric nanoparticles explored by these strategies were
described. Finally, in the last part of this review, the in vitro and in vivo results which demonstrate the effect of
these systems in the treatment and/or prevention of the most prevalent oral disorders were highlighted: dental
carious lesions, oral cancer, and periodontal and endodontic diseases.