Background: Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are the most common type
of stem cell used in the regeneration of skeletal tissue. These cells have multipotent, angiogenic,
paracrine, anti-fibrotic and immunological properties. They are readily available, easily isolated and
have many therapeutic applications. The ageing population is on the increase and with this comes an
upsurge in medical conditions that may benefit from novel stem cell-based therapies to treat ageingassociated
diseases. Given that autologous implantations have shown to be beneficial in these targeted
therapies, questions are raised regarding the effect of ageing and gender on the efficacy of stem cells.
Objective: In this review, we look at the ageing process and look at the effects of ageing and gender on
the characterization, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We also discuss future
therapeutic strategies that may be used to overcome these effects and cell senescence.
Conclusion: Advancements in modern technology and experimental techniques have provided an insight
into how ageing affects properties of MSCs. However, it is evident that further work needs to be
conducted due to many mixed reviews and conflicting data. Given that the human life expectancy is
expected to increase the topic of cell ageing and therapeutic applications will remain a hot topic in
years to come.