Background: Increasing population and industrialization are continuously oppressing
the existing energy resources and depleting the global fuel reservoirs. The elevated pollutions from
the continuous consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels also seriously contaminating the surrounding
environment. The use of alternate energy sources can be an environment-friendly solution
to cope these challenges. Among the renewable energy sources biofuels (biomass-derived fuels) can
serve as a better alternative to reduce the reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels. Bioethanol is one
of the most widely consumed biofuels of today's world.
Objective: The main objective of this review is to highlight the significance of lignocellulosic biomass
as a potential source for the production of biofuels like bioethanol, biodiesel or biogas.
Methods: We discuss the application of various methods for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic
biomass to end products i.e. biofuels. The lignocellulosic biomass must be pretreated to disintegrate
lignocellulosic complexes and to expose its chemical components for downstream processes. After
pretreatment, the lignocellulosic biomass is then subjected to saccharification either via acidic or
enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereafter, the monomeric sugars resulted from hydrolysis step are further
processed into biofuel i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel or butanol etc. through the fermentation process.
The fermented impure product is then purified through the distillation process to obtain pure biofuel.
Conclusion: Renewable energy sources represent the potential fuel alternatives to overcome the
global energy crises in a sustainable and eco-friendly manner. In future, biofuels may replenish the
conventional non-renewable energy resources due to their renewability and several other advantages.
Lignocellulosic biomass offers the most economical biomass to generate biofuels. However,
extensive research is required for the commercial production of an efficient integrated biotransformation
process for the production of lignocellulose mediated biofuels.