Background: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal cognition
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of vascular risk factors, vascular diseases,
cerebrovascular disease and brain atrophy in a large hospital-based cohort of MCI types including 471
amnestic MCI (a-MCI), 693 amnestic MCI multiple domain (a-MCImd), 322 single non-memory MCI
(snm-MCI), and 202 non amnestic MCI multiple domain (na-MCImd). For comparison, 1,005 neurologically
and cognitively healthy subjects were also evaluated.
Method: Several vascular risk factors and vascular diseases were assessed. All participants underwent
neurological, neuropsychological and behavioural assessments as well as carotid ultrasonography and
standard brain MRI. Multinomial logistic regression models on the MCI cohort with the NCH group and
a-MCI type as reference categories were used to assess the effects of the variables evaluated on the estimated
probability of one of the four MCI types.
Results: This study demonstrates that cerebrovascular disease contributes substantially to the risk of
non-memory MCI types and a-MCImd type, and that brain atrophy is present in all MCI types and is
greater in multiple domain types particularly in the na-MCI type.
Conclusion: Improving detection and control of cerebrovascular disease in aging individuals should be
mandatory. Since the incidence of MCI and dementia will be expected to rise because of the progressive
life expectancy, a better management of cerebrovascular disease could indeed prevent or delay the onset
of MCI, or could delay progression of MCI to dementia.