Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology
such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of
vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA
viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized
probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases. We discuss the unique roles of
these agents in modulating the cross-talk between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. In addition,
we provide an overview of the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated through the stimulation of
type 1 interferon production by probiotics and paraprobiotics via the activation of dendritic cells. Although further
detailed research is necessary in the future, probiotics and/or paraprobiotics are expected to be among the
rational adjunctive options for the treatment of various viral diseases.
Keywords: Probiotics, paraprobiotics, virus infection, interferon, plasmacytoid dendritic cell, vaccines.
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