Background: Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in
adults and is generally thought of as only affecting adults. However, the pathologic changes in vessels
leading to atherosclerosis, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, have been shown to
begin in early adolescence.
Objectives: There is a growing body of literature suggesting that earlier treatment, through lifestyle
changes and pharmacotherapy, can help reduce this risk. A growing number of children are presenting
with elevated cholesterol because of the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Methods: In addition, an increasing number of children are living with previously fatal diseases that
increase the risk of atherosclerosis, either because of the disease process or as adverse effect of the
treatment, such as human immunodeficiency virus, Kawasaki disease, and cardiac transplantation.
Result and Conclusion: In addition, specific disorders of cholesterol metabolism, such as Familial
Hypercholesterolemia (FH) may be encountered in a pediatric practice.