Edelfosine: An Antitumor Drug Prototype

Author(s): Sarah F. Teixeira, Cecilia P. Rodrigues, Cícero J.S. Costa, Thais N. Pettinati, Ricardo A. de Azevedo, Lisley I. Mambelli, Salomão D. Jorge, Rodrigo N. Ramos, Emer S. Ferro, José A.M. Barbuto, Adilson K. Ferreira*.

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 6 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer and a high fatality disease. Despite of all available therapeutic approaches, drug resistance of chemotherapy agents for patients remain as an obstacle. New drugs integrating immunotherapeutic and conventional cytotoxic effects is a powerful strategy for the treatment of cancer to overcome this limitation. Antineoplastic phospholipids combine both of these activities by affecting lipid metabolism and signaling through lipid rafts. Therefore, they emerge as interesting scaffolds for designing new drugs.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate antineoplastic phospholipids as scaffolds for designing new drugs for lung cancer treatment.

Methods: The initial screening in A549 cells was performed by MTT assay. Others cytotoxic effects were evaluated in A549 cells by clonogenic assay, Matrigel 3D culture and flow cytometry analyses of cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane electronic potential and superoxide production. Immunological effects of ED were accessed on dendritic cells (DCs) and the expression of some markers were evaluated by flow cytometry. In vivo lung colonization analysis was performed after intravenously injection of A549 cells and daily treatment with ED.

Results: Herein, ED showed to be the most efficient compound concerning cytotoxic, thereby, ED was selected for following tests. ED showed a cytotoxic profile in both monolayer and 3D culture and also in vivo models using A549 cells. This profile is due to G0/G1 phase cellular arrest and apoptosis drove by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and superoxide overproduction. Moreover, ED modulated DCs toward an activated pattern by the increased expression of CD83 and a remarkable decreased expression of PD-L1/CD274 on DCs membrane.

Conclusions: Thus, ED is an interesting antitumor drug prototype due to not only its direct cellular cytotoxicity but also given its immunological features.

Keywords: Lung cancer, antineoplastic phospholipids, edelfosine, anti-proliferative, dendritic cells, immune system modulation.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2018
Page: [865 - 874]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1871520618666180105165431
Price: $58

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