Frontiers in Respiratory Medicine

Frontiers in Respiratory Medicine

Advances in Interventional Pulmonology

Advances in Interventional Pulmonology is a comprehensive, evidence-based text on diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures. This volume covers basic and advanced procedures in the ...
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Flexible Bronchoscopy

Pp. 1-19 (19)

Donald R. Lazarus and Roberto F. Casal


Since its advent in the late 1960s, flexible bronchoscopy has revolutionized pulmonary practice. It allows the pulmonologist to examine the airways to the subsegmental level while obtaining diagnostic samples using techniques such as bronchoalveolar lavage, endobronchial biopsy, cytology brushing, transbronchial lung biopsy, and transbronchial needle aspiration. Even recent advancements in bronchoscopic technology have not rendered essential bronchoscopic techniques irrelevant, and the well-trained pulmonologist must be well versed in all of these techniques to provide optimal patient care.


Bronchoalveolar lavage, Bronchoscopy, Endobronchial biopsy, Flexible bronchoscopy, Transbronchial lung biopsy, Transbronchial needle aspiration.


Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcomb Blvd. Houston, Texas, USA.