Obesity induces an imbalance in the expression and secretion of several cytokines,
which contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.
On the contrary, skeletal muscle is known to have a role in reversing the detrimental impact
of obesity. It has been established that adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that
secretes proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Similarly, skeletal muscle
produces secretory molecules, called myokines, from contracting muscle fibers. Myokines
were recently recognized as beneficial modulators of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and
type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, adipokines and myokines play a crucial role in the communication
between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and other organs. It could be beneficial
to find novel adipokines and myokines, and to explore their signaling pathways to identify
targets for the treatment and prevention of cardiometabolic disorders. In this review, we
summarize recent studies on cross-talk between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In
particular, we concentrate on the major action mechanisms of adipokines and myokines,
such as adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, C1q/TNF-related proteins, interleukin-
6, irisin, and fibroblast growth factor 21.