Nuclear Medicine (NM) imaging plays a major role in the assessment of infection and inflammation.
Tracers, including single photon emitting radionuclides for Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and
agents for positron emission tomography (PET), reflect primarily tissue and cellular function or metabolism. In
the specific clinical setting of a patient with suspected infectious or inflammatory process, planar scintigraphy,
SPECT or PET procedures are used to support a clinically suspected diagnosis. Integrating metabolic and anatomic
information using a single SPECT/CT or PET/CT technique has substantially improved the diagnostic accuracy
of these imaging tests and advanced the NM technology to be a significant and important tool in the field of
infection and inflammation. Diabetes, one of the most prevalent diseases, has a direct relationship with the development
of various infection related condition. Due to alterations in different metabolic pathways, imaging of the
diabetic patient may be subject to specific pitfalls and obstacles which should be taken into consideration. This
review aimed at describing the impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on NM imaging, with an emphasis on FDGPET/
CT, in specific infectious conditions related to diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, infection, PET/CT, FDG, nuclear medicine, inflammation.
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