Background: Depression represents one of the most common disorders in diabetic patients
and frequently complicates the health care of this population. Poor self-efficacy has been associated
with increased depressive symptoms as well as poor glycemic control.
Objective: To assess depression and self-efficacy in adults with type 2 diabetes in Northern Greece and
to explore the factors which may affect them in this group of population.
Method: A descriptive study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in the largest city of Northern Greece.
The study group included a convenience sample of 170 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who completed
the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Diabetes Empowerment Scale- short
form (DES) questionnaire.
Results: The overall rate of diabetic patients showing psychological distress in the present study was
50.6%. Adults with low and moderate income experienced higher levels of depression and anxiety,
compared to those with high economical status (p<0,001). Also, adults who graduated elementary education
experienced higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms than those with a higher educational
level (p =0,038). There was a statistically significant difference between age (p<0.001), type of
residence (p=0.019), family status (p=0,002), financial status (p<0.001) and self-efficacy. Also, there
was a negative correlation between BMI and self-efficacy (r=-0.206, p<0.001) and a negative correlation
between depression and self-efficacy scale (r=-0.439, p<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of the present study highlight the importance of well-planned interventions in
order to reduce depression and increase self-efficacy in diabetic adults and to help them further improve
their quality of life.