Architectures and Mechanical Properties of Drugs and Complexes of Surface-Active Compounds at Air-Water and Oil-Water Interfaces

Author(s): Dipak K. Sarker*.

Journal Name: Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2019

Submit Manuscript
Submit Proposal

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Drugs can represent a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and on the contrary a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces. A series of techniques are routinely used to probe the molecular interactions that can arise between components, such as the drug, a range of surface– active excipients and flavor compounds, for example terpenoids and the solvent or dispersion medium.

Results: Fifty-eight papers were included in the review, a large number (16) being of theoretical nature and an equally large number (14) directly pertaining to medicine and pharmacy; alongside experimental data and phenomenological modelling. The review therefore simultaneously represents an amalgam of review article and research paper with routinely used or established (10) and well-reported methodologies (also included in the citations within the review). Experimental data included from various sources as diverse as foam micro-conductivity, interferometric measurements of surface adsorbates and laser fluorescence spectroscopy (FRAP) are used to indicate the complexity and utility of foams and surface soft matter structures for a range of purposes but specifically, here for encapsulation and incorporation of therapeutics actives (pharmaceutical molecules, vaccines and excipients used in medicaments). Techniques such as interfacial tensiometry, interfacial rheology (viscosity, elasticity and visco-elasticity) and nanoparticle particle size (hydrodynamic diameter) and charge measurements (zeta potential), in addition to atomic force and scanning electron microscopy have proven to be very useful in understanding how such elemental components combine, link or replace one another (competitive displacement). They have also proven to be both beneficial and worthwhile in the sense of quantifying the unseen actions and interplay of adsorbed molecules and the macroscopic effects, such as froth formation, creaming or sedimentation that can occur as a result of these interactions.

Conclusion: The disclosures and evaluations presented in this review confirm the importance of a theoretical understanding of a complex model of the molecular interactions, network and present a framework for the understanding of really very complex physical forms. Future therapeutic developers rely on an understanding of such complexity to garner a route to a more successful administration and formulation of a new generation of therapeutic delivery systems for use in medicine.

Keywords: Adsorbed layer, crosslinking, surfactant, polymer, drug, surface-active compounds.

Sarker DK. Quality systems and controls for pharmaceuticals. John Wiley and Sons 2008.
Sarker DK. Pharmaceutical emulsions: A Drug Developer’s Toolbag. Wiley-Blackwell 2013.
Courthaudon J-L, Dickinson E. Competitive adsorption of lecithin and β-casein in oil in water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 1991; 39: 1365-8.
Pommier Y, Marchand C. Interfacial inhibitors: targeting macromolecular complexes. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2012; 11: 25-36.
Shah V, Bharatiya B, Shukla AD, Mukherjee T, Shah DO. Adsorption of non-ionic Brij and Tween surfactants at PTFE-water and air-water interfaces: Investigations on wetting, dispersion stability, foaming and drug solubilisation. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2016; 508: 159-66.
Kothur RR, Fucassi F, Dichello G, et al. Synthesis and applications of co-pillar [5]arene dithiols. Supramol Chem 2015; 28(5-6): 436-43.
Svagan AJ, Benjamins J-W, Al-Ansari Z, et al. Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams – Towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems. J Control Release 2016; 244: 74-82.
Sarker DK. Engineering of Nanoemulsions for Drug Delivery. Curr Drug Deliv 2005; 2(4): 297-310.
Puttipipatkhachorn S, Nunthianid J, Yamamoto K, Peck GE. Drug physical state and drug-polymer interaction on drug release from chitosan matrix films. J Control Release 2001; 75: 143-5.
Mahajan S, Mahajan RK. Interactions of phenothiazine drugs with surfactants: A detailed physicochemical overview. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2013; 199-200: 1-14.
Valtcheva-Sarker RV, O’Reilly JD, Sarker DK. Administration of drug and nutritional components in nano-engineered form to increase delivery ratio and reduce current inefficient practice. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2007; 1(2): 147-59.
Arzhavitina A, Steckel H. Foams for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application. Int J Pharm 2010; 394: 1-17.
Jain K, Kesharwani P, Gupta U, Jani NK. A review of glycosylated carriers for drug delivery. Biomaterials 2012; 33: 4166-86.
Kiszonas AM, Fuerst EP, Morris CF. Wheat arabinoxylan structure provides insight into function. Cereal Chem 2013; 90(4): 387-95.
Daglia M. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2012; 23(2): 174-81.
Kim K, Pack DW. In Lee A, Lee J (editors) In BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology, Vol. I Biological and Biomedical Nanotechnology. Springer; 2006. Chapter 2
Li Z, Tan BH. Towards the development of polycaprolactone based amphiphilic block copolymers: molecular design, self-assembly and biomedical applications. ‎. Mater Sci Eng C 2014; 45: 620-34.
Briceño-Ahumada Z, Soltero A, Maldonado A, Perez J, Langevin D, Impéror-Clerc M. On the use of shear rheology to formulate stable foams. Example of a lyotropic lamellar phase. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2016; 507: 110-7.
Sun W, Sun D, Wei Y, Liu S, Zhang S. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose: Adsorption and thickening effect. J Colloid Interface Sci 2007; 311: 228-36.
Jiang W, Wang X, Guo D, Luo J, Nangia S. Drug-Specific Design of Telodendrimer Architecture for Effective Doxorubicin Encapsulation. J Phys Chem B 2016; 120(36): 9766-77.
Wieland DCF, Degen P, Paulus M, Schroer MA, Rehage H, Tolan M. pH controlled condensation of polysiloxane networks at the water–air interface. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2014; 455: 44-8.
Hu B, Wright RAE, Jiang S, Henn DM, Zhao B. Hybrid Micellar network hydrogels of thermosensitive ABA Triblock copolymer and polymer brush-grafted nanoparticles: Effect of LCST transition of polymer brushes on gel property. Polymer 2016; 82: 206-16.
Reichert MD, Walker LM. Coalescence behaviour of oil droplets coated in irreversibly-adsorbed surfactant layers. J Colloid Interface Sci 2015; 449: 480-7.
Piętka-Ottlik M, Lewińska A, Jaromin A, Krasowska A, Wilk KA. Antifungal organoselenium compound loaded nanoemulsions stabilized by bifunctional cationic surfactants. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2016; 510: 53-62.
Zhao Y, Brown MB, Jones SA. Engineering novel topical foams using hydrofluroalkane emulsions stabilised with Pluronic surfactants. Eur J Pharm Sci 2009; 37: 370-7.
Dexter AF, Malcolm AS, Middelberg APJ. Reversible active switching of the mechanical properties of a peptide film at a fluid–fluid interface. Nat Mater 2006; 5: 502-6.
Sarker DK, Wilde PJ, Clark DC. Enhancement of the stability of protein-based foams using trivalent cations. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 1996; 14: 227-36.
Dimitrova LM, Boneva MP, Danov KD, et al. Limited coalescence and Ostwald ripening in emulsions stabilized by hydrophobin HFBII and milk proteins. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2016; 509: 521-38.
Singh AV, Bandgar BM, Kasture M, Prasad BLV, Sastry M. Synthesis of gold, silver and their alloy nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin as foaming and stabilizing agent. J Mater Chem 2005; 15: 5115-21.
Gao Z-M, Wang J-M, Wu N-N, et al. Formation of Complex Interface and Stability of Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsion Prepared by Soy Lipophilic Protein Nanoparticles. J Agric Food Chem 2013; 61(32): 7838-47.
Lam S, Velikov KP, Velev OD. Pickering stabilization of foams and emulsions with particles of biological origin. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2014; 19: 490-500.
Littoz F, McClements DJ. Bio-mimetic approach to improving emulsion stability: Cross-linking adsorbed beet pectin layers using laccase. Food Hydrocoll 2008; 22: 1203-11.
Borbás R, Murray BS, Kiss É. Interfacial shear rheological behaviour of proteins in three-phase partitioning systems. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2003; 213(1): 91-103.
Deshmukh OS, van den Ende D, Stuart MC, Mugele F, Duits MHG. Hard and soft colloids at fluid interfaces: Adsorption, interactions, assembly & rheology. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2015; 222: 215-27.
Qi S, Roser S, Edler KJ, et al. Insights into the Role of Polymer-Surfactant Complexes in Drug Solubilisation/Stabilisation During Drug Release from Solid Dispersions. Pharm Res 2013; 30(1): 290-302.
Li W, Huang Z, Wu Y, Zhao X, Liu S. Honeycomb carbon foams with tunable pore structures prepared from liquefied larch sawdust by self-foaming. Ind Crops Prod 2015; 64: 215-23.
Rio E, Drenckhan W, Salonen A, Langevin D. Unusually stable liquid foams. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2014; 205: 74-86.
Schreier S, Malheiros SVP, de Paula E. Surface active drugs: Self-association and interaction with membranes and surfactants. Physicochemical and biological aspects. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (BBA) -. Biomembranes 2000; 1508(1): 210-34.
Gao Z, Zhan W, Guo Y, Wang Y, Guo Y, Lu G. Aldehydepropyl-functionalized mesostructured cellular foams: Efficient supports for immobilization of penicillin G acylase. J Molecular Catalysis B Enzym 2014; 105: 111-7.
Wüstneck R, Krägel J, Miller R, et al. Dynamic surface tension and adsorption properties of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin. Food Hydrocoll 1996; 10(4): 395-405.
Sarker DK, Wilde PJ, Clark DC. Competitive adsorption of L-α-lysophosphatidylcholine/β-lactoglobulin mixtures at the interfaces of foams and foam lamellae. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 1995; 3: 349-56.
Dickinson E, Golding M. Rheology of sodium caseinate stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 1997; 191: 166-76.
Akpalo E, Bidault L, Boissière M, Vancaeyzeele C, Fichet O, Larreta-Garde V. Fibrin–polyethylene oxide interpenetrating polymer networks: New self-supported biomaterials combining the properties of both protein gel and synthetic polymer. Acta Biomater 2011; 7(6): 2418-27.
García MC, Cuggino JC, Rosset C, et al. A novel gel based on an ionic complex from a dendronized polymer and ciprofloxacin: Evaluation of its use for controlled topical drug release. Mater Sci Eng C 2016; 69: 236-46.
Niang PM, Huang Z, Dulong V, Souguir Z, Le Cerf D, Picton L. Thermo-controlled rheology of electro-assembled polyanionic polysaccharide (alginate) and polycationic thermo-sensitive polymers. Carbohydr Polym 2016; 139: 67-74.
Streck L, de Araújo MM, de Souza I, et al. Surfactant–cosurfactant interactions and process parameters involved in the formulation of stable and small droplet-sized benznidazole-loaded soybean O/W emulsions. J Mol Liq 2014; 196: 178-86.
Alhaique F, Casadei MA, Cencetti C, et al. From macro to nano polysaccharide hydrogels: An opportunity for the delivery of drugs. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2016; 32: 88-99.
Shah A, Masoodi FA, Gani A, Ashwar BA. In-vitro digestibility, rheology, structure, and functionality of RS3 from oat starch. Food Chem 2016; 212: 749-58.
Shulze M, Handge UA, Rangou S, Lillepärg J, Abetz V. Thermal properties, rheology and foams of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymers. Polymer 2015; 70: 88-99.
Ma Q, Du L, Yang Y, Wang L. Rheology of film-forming solutions and physical properties of Tara gum film reinforced with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Food Hydrocoll 2017; 63: 677-84.
Sharma R, Nandni D, Mahajan RK. Interfacial and micellar properties of mixed systems of tricyclic antidepressant drugs with polyoxyethylene alkyl ether surfactants. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2014; 451: 107-16.
Fan J, Liu F, Wang Z. Shear rheology and in-vitro release kinetic study of apigenin from lyotropic liquid crystal. Int J Pharm 2016; 497(1-2): 248-54.
Gavara N, Chadwick RS. Noncontact microrheology at acoustic frequencies using frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy. Nat Methods 2010; 7: 650-4.
Al-Hanbali O, Onwuzo NM, Rutt K, Dadswell CM, Moghimi SM, Hunter AC. Modification of the Stewart biphasic colorimetric assay for stable and accurate quantitative determination of Pluronic and Tetronic block copolymers for application in biological systems. Anal Biochem 2007; 361(2): 287-93.
Chevalier Y, Bolzinger M-A. Emulsions stabilized with solid nanoparticles: Pickering emulsions. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2013; 439: 23-34.
Bazylińska U, Zieliński W, Kulbacka J, Samoć M, Wilk KA. New diamidequat-type surfactants in fabrication of long-sustained theranostic nanocapsules: Colloidal stability, drug delivery and bioimaging. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016; 137: 121-32.
Čop M, Lacoste C, Conradi M, Laborie M-P, Pizzi A, Sernek M. The effect of the composition of spruce and pine tannin-based foams on their physical, morphological and compression properties. Ind Crops Prod 2015; 74: 158-64.
Thomas PC, Cipriano BH, Raghavan SR. Nanoparticle-crosslinked hydrogels as a class of efficient materials for separation and ion exchange. Soft Matter 2011; 7: 8192-7.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [11 - 29]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/1570163814666171117132202
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 34