Nowadays, fast and sensitive methods for biomarkers detection exist, but the
performance of most of them still rely centralized laboratory testing. The development of
small, fast and simple to use medical devices that can help in making diagnosis accurate
and with low-invasiveness is now a major challenge for nanotechnology. Nanomaterialsbased
systems have significant advantages over current conventional approaches in terms
of simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity. In this review, we describe the most interesting
nanotechnological devices/approaches proposed for circulating biomarkers detection
in oncology. In particular, new applicable nanobiosensors for nucleic acids and
proteins identification are discussed and classified into four most interesting nanotechnologies:
bio-barcodes, quantum dots, metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanosensors.
Their versatility has been demonstrated in different applications aiming to detect and
quantify cancer biomarkers in real biological samples, in order to show how these methods
can lead, in the future, to the development of devices for routine clinical application.