Background: Lipid nanoparticles have been extensively studied for drug delivery of antifungal drugs,
especially for dermatophytosis treatments. They can accumulate in skin appendages and release drugs in a controlled
manner and also increase skin moisture, due to the formation of an occlusive film. Since moisture heavily
influences nail and skin permeability, these systems seem to pose great potential for antifungal drug delivery.
Methods: We therefore compare skin and nail physiopathological structure and discuss the potential use of lipid
nanoparticles in managing skin and nail mycoses, highlighting their unexplored use in onychomycosis.
Results: Structural features become particularly relevant when treating local skin/nail disorders. Nail plate represents
the most resistant barrier to the penetration of molecules. In recent years, at least 55 researches have been
reported about lipid nanoparticles and, antifungal drugs. They have focused on production methods and nanoparticle
ingredients influence on entrapment efficiency, fungal activity in vitro, stability, and drug release. Lipid
nanoparticles such as SLN and NLC have shown great results in permeating the skin. Currently, however, there is
just one study published using NLC applied directly to the nail plate. NLC containing voriconazole had a noteworthy
impact on the penetration depth of a nanoencapsulated drug, which allowed its deeper penetration into
porcine hooves than the unloaded drug.
Conclusion: Evidence of the success of SLN and NLC in achieving high encapsulation efficiencies of antifungals
and promoting cutaneous delivery indicates the potential of the systems in enhancing nail hydration and drug
penetration into the nail plate.