Background and Objective: The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet)
hinges on the relevant role it plays in inflammatory diseases. Several clinical, epidemiological and
experimental evidences suggest that consumption of the MeDiet reduces the incidence of certain pathologies
related to oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and immune system diseases such as cancer,
atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These reductions can be partially attributed to extra
virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption which has been described as a key bioactive food because of its
high nutritional quality and its particular composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols. Indeed,
the beneficial effects of EVOO have been linked to its fatty acid composition, which is very rich in
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and has moderate saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA). The current knowledge available on the beneficial effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds,
specifically its biological properties and antioxidant capacity against immune-mediated inflammatory
responses (atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, obesity, cancer, inflammatory
bowel disease or neurodegenerative disease, among others) in addition to its potential clinical applications.
Conclusion: The increasing body of studies carried out provides compelling evidence that olive polyphenols
are potential candidates to combat chronic inflammatory states.