Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Therapies of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

Author(s): Elzbieta Miller*, Agnieszka Morel, Justyna Redlicka, Igor Miller, Joanna Saluk.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 16 , Issue 4 , 2018

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Abstract:

Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms.

Methods: Therefore, this review focused on the current status of our knowledge about possible methods of treatment cognitive impairment in MS patients including novel strategies. Research and online content was performed using Medline and EMBASE databases.

Results: The most recent research suggests that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion volume and brain atrophy. The examination of the cognitive impairment is usually based on particular neuropsychological batteries. However, it can be not enough to make a precise diagnosis. This creates a demand to find markers that might be useful for identifying patients with risk of cognitive impairment at an early stage of the disease. Currently the most promising methods consist of neuroimaging indicators, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl aspartate levels. Diagnosis problems are strictly connected with treatment procedures. There are two main cognitive therapies: pharmacological (disease modifying drugs (DMD), symptomatic treatments) and non-pharmacological interventions that are focused on psychological and physical rehabilitation. Some trials have shown a positive association between physical activity and the cognitive function.

Conclusion: This article is an overview of the current state of knowledge related to cognition impairment treatment in MS. Additionally, novel strategies for cognitive impairments such as cryostimulation and other complementary methods are presented.

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, cognitive impairment, pharmacology, non-pharmacological therapies, disease-modifying drugs, neurodegeneration.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2018
Page: [475 - 483]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X15666171109132650
Price: $58

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