Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of
neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up
to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention,
reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is
the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these
impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms.
Methods: Therefore, this review focused on the current status of our knowledge about possible
methods of treatment cognitive impairment in MS patients including novel strategies. Research and
online content was performed using Medline and EMBASE databases.
Results: The most recent research suggests that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion
volume and brain atrophy. The examination of the cognitive impairment is usually based on particular
neuropsychological batteries. However, it can be not enough to make a precise diagnosis. This
creates a demand to find markers that might be useful for identifying patients with risk of cognitive
impairment at an early stage of the disease. Currently the most promising methods consist of neuroimaging
indicators, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl
aspartate levels. Diagnosis problems are strictly connected with treatment procedures. There are two
main cognitive therapies: pharmacological (disease modifying drugs (DMD), symptomatic treatments)
and non-pharmacological interventions that are focused on psychological and physical rehabilitation.
Some trials have shown a positive association between physical activity and the cognitive
Conclusion: This article is an overview of the current state of knowledge related to cognition impairment
treatment in MS. Additionally, novel strategies for cognitive impairments such as cryostimulation
and other complementary methods are presented.