Background: Nanotechnology has immense significance in the field of medicine, agriculture,
business, public health sector due to wide applicability of the nano products. Basically,
nanotechnology is the incorporation of nanoscale structures into larger material components to improve
the properties of constructed system.
Method: Nanotechnology serves as an alternative drug delivery system to the liposomes drug delivery
system as the stability of the product in biological fluids is the main problem associated with the
liposomal drug delivery system. In the present review, nanoparticles, their applications, various techniques
of preparation of nanoparticles and research update on nano particulate drug delivery system
have been discussed.
Results: The main complication associated with biodegradable polymer is uncertainty in their absorption
pathway in gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes, harmful by-products after metabolism are released.
However, the polymeric nanoparticles (synthetic or semi-synthetic) have a defined structure therefore;
get absorbed in intact form in gastrointestinal tract.
Conclusion: Nano-particulate drug delivery system using natural/synthetic polymer may enhance the
therapeutic activity of some anti-cancer drug by increasing the host's immune mechanism and antitumor
role through improving the body's immune function. It has been observed that despite the technological
challenges, nanoparticulate drug delivery system is the most promising drug delivery system in
case of anticancer drugs because polymer based nanostructures enhance the bio-adhesiveness and as
well as local accumulation of chemotherapeutic agent.