The Prophylactic Use of Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients Scheduled for Neurosurgery

Author(s): Barbara Miziak, Kinga Borowicz-Reutt, Radoslaw Rola, Barbara Blaszczyk, Miroslaw Czuczwar, Stanislaw J. Czuczwar*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 23 , Issue 42 , 2017

Abstract:

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) possess diverse mechanisms of action – enhancement of GABA-mediated events, inhibition of glutamate-mediated excitation, blockade of voltage-dependent sodium or calcium channels being the most frequently shared. They are not only used for the symptomatic management of epilepsy but in the treatment of psychiatric or neurologic disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder, neuropathic pain, prophylaxis of migraine). Generally, this group of drugs is also widely used in neurosurgery patients for the prevention of seizure activity and their effectiveness in this regard has been evaluated in this review.

There is no controversy as to whether continue AEDs in patients with epilepsy scheduled for neurosurgery. A question arises on whether AEDs may be recommended to non-epileptic neurosurgical patients for the prevention of post-surgery early or late seizures. There are some positive examples indicating that AEDs may reduce the occurrence of preferably early seizures, some results also being positive in the case of late seizure activity. However, there are also many negative data in this regard. The existence of serious adverse effects and a possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions with the concomitant therapy may further complicate the decision on whether to start the prophylactic use of AEDs. In general, the existing evidence does not support the prophylactic use of AEDs, especially in patients who underwent craniotomy/craniectomy for the inhibition of late seizure activity.

Keywords: Antiepileptic drugs, neurosurgery, craniotomy, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, seizures.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 23
ISSUE: 42
Year: 2017
Page: [6411 - 6427]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666171027125408
Price: $58

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