Background: Stem cell therapy was established as a promising approach for regenerative
medicine applications such as cardiac repair. However, current stem cell-based therapeutic strategies
have serious challenges such as low retention and viability of transplanted stem cells in the injured
myocardium. This significantly limits efficiency of stem cell therapy. In addition, poor knowledge
about the fate and survival of stem cells after transplantation represents a major reason of conflicting
results from recent clinical studies.
Objective: The purpose of review is to highlight key properties and possible applications of nanoparticles
for therapeutic approaches utilizing stem cells for cardiac repair.
Results: Nanoparticles that are widely used in various biomedical applications may serve as a valuable
tool for overcoming these obstacles. Various types of nanoparticles could be efficiently used for delivery
of genes that enhance survival and regenerative capacity and decrease apoptosis of transplanted
stem cells in the adverse ischemic microenvironment. Furthermore, modification of nanoparticles with
chemical agents and/or specific proteins and peptides greatly increases the possibility of targeted
transfer of a cargo. Nanoparticles can also greatly facilitate in vivo monitoring of stem cell tracking.
Using multimodality hybrid nanosized agents, it is possible to obtain detailed characterization of the
post-transplantation behavior of stem cell engrafts.
Conclusion: Using of nanocarriers may be very helpful to trigger the efficiency of cardiovascular
stem cell biology. It is important however to keep in the mind safety and compatibility of implementation
of nanoparticles to proceed to clinical trials.