Background: The innate immune response is the first line of defense against
predatory pathogens and the Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) which have been identified from
Drosophila melanogaster, forming the crux of the innate immune system.
Method: These pattern recognition receptors identify the Pathogen Associated Molecular
Pattern (PAMP's) and elicit the specificity of the innate immune response towards the
pathogen or the offending agent. The signaling cascade results in the production of proinflammatory
cytokines and activation of the adaptive immune responses.
Observations: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and periodontitis are
chronic inflammatory disorders which have a significant prevalence in the global population.
The inflammatory and exacerbated immune response form a common pathway in
the pathogenesis of both the diseases. The TLR mediated inflammatory cascade is believed
to be responsible for the destructive host responses in periodontitis and COPD.
The TLR's have been targeted in the therapeutics for diseases like HIV, Hepatitis-B,
Conclusion: This review intends to discuss the role of TLR's in the pathogenesis of
COPD and periodontitis, as well as the therapeutic potential in both the chronic diseases.