Modern Approach to Medical Diagnostics - the Use of Separation Techniques in Microorganisms Detection

Author(s): Agnieszka Chylewska*, Małgorzata Ogryzek, Mariusz Makowski*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Analytical chemistry and biotechnology as an interdisciplinary fields of science have been developed during many years and are experiencing significant growth, to cover a wide range of microorganisms separation techniques and methods, utilized for medical therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Currently scientific reports contribute by introducing electrophoretical and immunological methods and formation of devices applied in food protection (avoiding epidemiological diseases) and healthcare (safety ensuring in hospitals).

Methods: Electrophoretic as well as nucleic-acid-based or specific immunological methods have contributed tremendously to the advance of analyses in recent three decades, particularly in relation to bacteria, viruses and fungi identifications, especially in medical in vitro diagnostics, as well as in environmental or food protection.

Results: The paper presents the pathogen detection competitiveness of these methods against conventional ones, which are still too time consuming and also labor intensive. The review is presented in several parts following the current trends in improved pathogens separation and detection methods and their subsequent use in medical diagnosis.

Discussion: Part one, consists of elemental knowledge about microorganisms as an introduction to their characterization: descriptions of divisions, sizes, membranes (cells) components. Second section includes the development, new technological and practical solution descriptions used in electrophoretical procedures during microbes analyses, with special attention paid to bio-samples analyses like blood, urine, lymph or wastewater. Third part covers biomolecular areas that have created a basis needed to identify the progress, limitations and challenges of nucleic-acid-based and immunological techniques discussed to emphasize the advantages of new separative techniques in selective fractionating of microorganisms.

Keywords: Microorganisms, electrophoretic, nucleic-acid-based, immunomagnetic techniques, separation methods, microbes.

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VOLUME: 26
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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666171023164813
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