Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer treatment have been
a major task for research scientists and pharmaceutical industry for the last many years. Seeking to the
development, many promising chemical entities especially five-membered heterocyclic rings like oxadiazole
have revealed good anticancer and anti HIV activities. The current review enlists some recently
developed anti-HIV and anti-cancer oxadiazole moieties.
Methods: on the basis of structural modification for the syntheses of new oxadiazole analogs, the new
anti-HIV and anti-cancer agents have been summarized, which can improve treatment of AIDs and cancer.
Results: The oxadiazole ring is more potent in comparison to some other heterocyclic rings (five and
six membered) towards anti-HIV and anti-cancer activities. The important mechanisms involved for anti
HIV and anticancer activity are mainly inhibition of enzymes like protease, HIV-integrase, telomerase,
histone deacetylase, methionine amino peptidase, thymidylate synthase and focal adhesion kinase and
inhibition of some growth factors.
Conclusion: By reviving the past literature about 50 most potent oxadiazole derivatives, depending
upon activity and structural modifications, have been selected as potent anti-HIV, and anti-cancer
agents. Thus, oxadiazole seems to be a ‘privileged structure’ for further screening and syntheses of the
new drug analogs against life threatening HIV and cancer like diseases.