Background: Reactive dyes have been a great concern for protecting the aquatic flora and
fauna and biodiversity of environment because many of these dyes and their breakdown products have
been found toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on ecosystem.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of clam shell powder as a low cost
adsorbent for the removal of C.I Reactive Blue 21 (RB-21), anionic dye from an aqueous solution.
Method: Different treatment methods are investigated but amongst them adsorption have found to be
most cost effective and efficient method. The effects of pH, dye concentration, speed of agitation,
adsorbent loading were studied using batch mode adsorptive removal. The adsorbent was
characterised by BET analyser and FTIR spectroscopy.
Results: Results showed that the adsorption of the dye was favourable at acidic condition. The kinetics
of adsorption was studied using pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetics models. The
collected results confirmed that the pseudo second order kinetics model exhibited the best fit with the
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the low cost clamshell powder can be employed as
effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of RB-21 from aqueous solutions.